Optimizing Production of Persian Shallot Essential Oil Emulsion Loaded with Omega 3 Fatty Acids by Nano Polyaniline-Fiber/Gas Chromatography

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


The aim of this study was to produce Persian shallot essential oil nano-emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids by spontaneous emulsification method and obtain the optimum conditions by head space-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography (HS-SPME/GC) technique and polyaniline (PANI) nano fiber. The effects of four factors including omega 3 percent, surfactant type (TWEEN 20, 80 and caseinate sodium), surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR 10-300%), and storage time on the encapsulation efficiency and chromatographic characteristics (including total peak area and total peak height) were studied. The Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to design 32 experiments. The effects of factors was considered on the emulsion, and P-value of <0.05 statistically significant. ..


Main Subjects

Anton, N. & Vandamme, T.F. (2009). The universality of low-energy nanoemulsification. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 377,142–147.
Anton, N. & Vandamme, T.F. (2011). Nano-emulsions and micro-emulsions: clarifications of the critical differences. Pharm. Res,28 (5), 978–985.
Augustin, M.A., Sanguansri, L.& Bode, O. (2006). Maillard reaction products as encapsulants for fish oil powders. Journal of Food Science, 71 (2), 25–32.
Baranauskien, P., Venskutonis, P.T. & Dewettinck, K.,  R. (2006). Properties of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), citronella(Cymbopogon nardus G.) and marjoram (Majorana hortensis L.) flavors encapsulated into milk protein-based matrices, Food Research International ,39 ,413–425.
Bahrani, S., Ghanbarzadeh, B.,  Hamishekar, H. & Sowti khiyabani, M. (2013). Nanoencapsulation of omega-3 fatty acids using caseinate-pectin based complexes: FTIR, DSC, particle size, and encapsulation efficiency, Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology,3 ,1-15.(In Farsi)
Brandelli, A., Brum, L. F. W. &  dos Santos, J. H. Z. (2016). Nanobiotechnology methods to incorporate  bioactive compounds in food packaging. In Nanoscience in Food and Agriculture . Springer International Publishing, 2,27-58.
Burt, S. (2004).Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology,9,223–253.
Bylait, E., Venskutonis, P. R. &  Mazˇdzˇierien, (2001). Properties of caraway (Carum carvi L.) essential oil encapsulated into milk proteinbased matrices. European Food Research and Technology, 212, 661–670.
Charoen, R., Jangchud, A., Jangchud, K., Harnsilawat, T., Decker, E. A. & McClements, D. J. (2012). Influence of interfacial composition on oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized bybiopolymer emulsifiers. Food Chemistry, 131(4), 1340–1346.
Dan Su., Qixin Zhong. (2016). Lemon oil nanoemulsions fabricated with sodium caseinate and Tween 20 using phase inversion temperature method. Journal of Food Engineering, 171,214-221.
Dias, D. O.,  Colombo, M., Kelmann, R. G., De Souza, T. P., Bassani, V. L.,  Teixeira, H. F.,  Veiga,L., Renata, P. & Koester, S.(2012). Optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction for analysis of caryophyllene in a nanoemulsion dosage form prepared with copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne) oil, Analytica Chimica Acta, 721, 79– 84.
Dickinson. E. & Golding, M. (1997). Depletion flocculation of emulsions containing unadsorbed sodium caseinate. Food Hydrocollids,11,13–18.
Drusch, S., Berg, S., Scampicchioa, M., Serfert, Y., Somoza, V., Mannino, S. & Schwarz, K. (2009a). Role of glycated caseinate in stabilisation of microencapsulated lipophilic functional ingredients. Food Hydrocolloids, 23, 942-948.
Drusch, S., Serfert, Y., Scampicchio, M., Schimith-Hansberg, B., Schwarz, K. ( 2007). Impact of physicochemical characteristics on the oxidative stability of fish oil microencapsultated by spray drying. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55 (26), 11044–11051
Garcia-Esteban, M., Ansorena, D., Astiasaran, I. & Ruiz, J. (2004). Study of the effect of different fiber coatings and extraction conditions on dry cured ham volatile compounds extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Talanta, 64, 458–466.
Helena, C.F., Renata,  V.,  Tonon, R.F. &  Míriam, D. (2013). Encapsulation efficiency and oxidative stability of flaxseed oil microencapsulated by spray drying using different combinations of wall materials, Journal of Food Engineering ,115,443–451.
Hojjati, M., Speziale, M., Noguera-Artiaga, L. & Antonio Carbonell-Barrach, A.(2015). Volatile Composition, Texture and Sensory Description of Gaz (Traditional Persian Confection). Journal of texture studies, 46 (6), 440-454.
Hu, M., McClements, D.J. & Decker, E.A. (2003). Lipid oxidation in corn oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by casein, whey protein isolate, and soy protein isolate. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(6),1696–1700.
Jalal, R., Bagheri, S.M., Moghimi, A. &  Rasuli, M.B. (2007). Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous shallot and garlic extracts in rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition, 41,218-226.
Jimenez, M., García, H.S. & Beristain, C.I.( 2006). Spray dried encapsulation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) with polymeric matrices. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86 (14), 2431–2437.
Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Ngassoum, M. B. & Geissier, M. (2002). Analysis of the headspace aroma compounds of the seeds of the Cameroonian garlic plant Hua gabonii using SPME/GC/FID, SPME/GC/MS and olfactometry. European Food Resource and Technology, 214, 212–215.
Joglekar, A. &  May, A. (1987). Product excellence through design of experiments, Cereal Foods World. 32,857-868.
Karthik, P. & Anandharamakrishnan, C. (2013).Microencapsulation of docosahexaenoic acid by spray-freeze-drying method and comparison of its stability with spray-drying and freeze-drying methods. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6, 2780–2790.
Kataoka, H., Itano, M., Ishizaki, A. & Saito, K. (2009).Determination of patulin in fruit juice and dried fruit samples by in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A,1216(18),3746-50.
Kennedy, E.T., Luo, H. & Ausman, L.M. (2012). Cost implications of alternative sources of (n-3) fatty acid consumption in the United States. Journal of Nutrition, 142 (3(,605–609.
Kim, Y. D., Morr, C. V. & Schenz, T. W. (1996). Microencapsulation properties of gum arabic and several food proteins: liquid orange emulsion particles. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44,1308-1313.
Kris-Etherton, P.M., Grieger, J.A. & Etherton, T.D. (2009). Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids, 81:99–104.
Lambropoulou, D. A. & Albanis, T. A. (2002). Headspace solid-phase microextraction applied to the analysis of organophosphorus insecticides in strawberry and cherry juices. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 3359–3365.
Lavie, C.J., Milani, R.V., Mehra, M.R. & Ventura, H.O. (2009). Omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases. Journal American Coll Cardiol, 54,585-594.
Lee, S.J. & McClements, D.J. (2010). Fabrication of protein-stabilized nanoemulsions using a combined homogenization and amphiphilic solvent dissolution/evaporation approach. Food Hydrocollid, 24,560–569.
LIM, H.K., TAN, C.P., BAKAR, J. & NG, S.P. (2012). Effects of different wall materials on the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of spray-dried microencapsulated red-fleshed pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. Food Bioprocess Technol,5, 1220–1227.
Lipan, L., Hojjati, M., El-Zaeddi, H.,  Sánchez-Rodríguez, L. & Carbonell-Barrachina, ÁA. (2016). Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice. Foods, 5 (4), 1-8.
Maki, K.C., Yurko-Mauro, K., Dicklin, M.R., Schild, A.L., and Geohas, J.G. (2014). A new, microalgal DHA and EPA containing oil lowers triacylglycerols in adults with mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA), 91,141–148.
Matisova` , E., Medved_ova`, M., Vraniakova, J. &  Simon, P. (2002). Optimization of solid-phase microextraction of volatiles. Journal of Chromatography A, 960, 159–164.
Nam, S.K. & Dong-Sun, L. (2004). Headspace solid-phase microextraction for characterization of fragrances of lemon verbena(Aloysia triphylla) by gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry.  J. Sep. Sci, 27, 96–100.
Pawliszyn, J. (1995). New directions in sample preparation for analysis of organic compounds. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 14(3), 113–122.
Pezeshky, A., Ghanbarzadeh, B., Hamishehkar, H., Moghadam, M. & Babazadeh, A. (2016). Vitamin A palmitate-bearing nanoliposomes: preparation and characterization. Food Bioscience13, 49-55.
Rao, J. & McClements, D. J. (2013). Optimization of lipid nanoparticle formation for beverage applications: Influence of oil type, cosolvents, and cosurfactants on nanoemulsion properties. Journal of food engineering, 118(2),198-204.
Reineccius, G. A. (1989). Flavor encapsulation. Food Reviews International, 5, 147–176.
Saberi, A.H., Fang, Y. & McClements, D.J. (2013). Fabrication of vitamin E-enriched nanoemulsions: factors affecting particle size using spontaneous emulsification. Journal of Colloid Interface Science, 391, 95–102.
Sarafraz, Y. A. & Es'haghi, Z. (2005). Two-step hollow fiber-based, liquid-phase micro extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography: a new approach to determination of aromatic amines in water. Journal of Chromatography A, 1082(2),136-142.
Shirey, R. E. (2000). Optimization of extractions conditions and fiber selection for semivolatile analytes using solid-phase microextraction. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 38, 279–288.
Steenson, D. F., Lee, J. H., & Min, D. B. (2002). Solid-phase microextraction of volatile soybean oil and corn oil compounds. Journal of Food Science, 67, 71–76.
Surh, J., Decker, E. A. &McClements, D. J. (2017). Utilisation of spontaneous emulsification to fabricate lutein‐loaded nanoemulsion‐based delivery systems: factors influencing particle size and colour. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 52(6),1408-1416.
Takeungwongtrakul, S. & Benjakul, S. (2012), Effect of Glucose Syrup and Fish Gelatin on Physicochemical Properties and Oxidative Stability of Spray-Dried Micro-Encapsulated Shrimp Oil, Journal of Food Processing and Preservation ISSN, 1745-4549.
Ton, N. M. N., Tran, T. T. T. & Le, V. V. M. (2016). Microencapsulation of rambutan seed oil by spray-drying using different protein preparations, International Food Research Journal, 23(1),123-128.
Uluata, S., McClements, D. J. & Decker, E. A. (2015). Physical stability, autoxidation, and photosensitized oxidation of ω-3 oils in nanoemulsions prepared with natural and synthetic surfactants. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 63(42), 9333-9340.
Walker, R.M., Decker, E.A. & McClements, D.J. (2015). Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil nanoemulsions produced by spontaneous emulsification: effect of surfactant concentration and particle size. Journal of Food Engineering, 164,10-20.
Zolgharnein, J., Shahmoradi, A. & Ghasemi, J.B. (2013). Comparative study of Box–Behnken, central composite, and Doehlert matrix for multivariate optimization of Pb (II) adsorption onto Robinia tree leaves. Journal of Chemometrics , 27(1),12-20.