Production of Biodegradable Packaging Material Based on Starch-kefiran-ZnO: Physical and Mechanical Characterization

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Food Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

2 Graduated MS Student, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


In this study, biodegradable film based on starch-kefiran-ZnO was made by casting method. The produced films contain different content of nano ZnO (ZN) (1%, 3%, and 5% wt.). Also ZN dispersed by ultrasonic homogenizer and added to the starch-kefiran solution. Surface characteristics, thickness, moisture content, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties were investigated. In the images of water droplets, it was observed that the contact angle of starch-kefiran was 89.67 degrees. By increasing the amount of zinc oxide nanoparticles up to 1%, the contact angle increased significantly to 95.63 degrees, which means improving the surface properties and hydrophobicity. The water vapor permeability for starch-kefir film (×10−10 g m-1s−1Pa−1) was 3.12, which was increased to 2.03 (×10−10 g m-1s−1Pa−1) by increasing the concentration of zinc oxide up to 3%. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the specimens were increased by increasing ZN content up to 3%. On the other hand, elongation at break of the nanocomposites was decreased, simultaneously. It is obvious that, ZN was improved some of the packaging properties of the starch-kefiran film.


Main Subjects

Almasi, H., Ghanbarzadeh, B., Entezami, A.A., (2010). Physicochemical properties of starch–CMC–nanoclay biodegradable films. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (46), 1-5.
Anitha, S., Brabu, B., Thiruvadigal, D.J., Gopalakrishnan, C., Natarajan, T., (2012). Optical, bactericidal and water repellent properties of electrospun nano-composite membranes of cellulose acetate and ZnO. Carbohydrate polymers (87), 1065-1072.
Anker, M., Berntsen, J., Hermansson, A.-M., Stading, M., (2002). Improved water vapor barrier of whey protein films by addition of an acetylated monoglyceride. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies (3), 81-92.
Averous, L., Boquillon, N., (2004). Biocomposites based on plasticized starch: thermal and mechanical behaviours. Carbohydrate polymers (56), 111-122.
Baldwin, E., Nisperos-Carriedo, M., Baker, R., (1995). Edible coatings for lightly processed fruits and vegetables. HortScience (30), 35-38.
Bilbao-Sainz, C., Bras, J., Williams, T., Sénechal, T., Orts, W., (2011). HPMC reinforced with different cellulose nano-particles. Carbohydrate polymers (86), 1549-1557.
El-Wakil, N.A., Hassan, E.A., Abou-Zeid, R.E., Dufresne, A., (2015). Development of wheat gluten/nanocellulose/titanium dioxide nanocomposites for active food packaging. Carbohydrate polymers (124), 337-346.
Famá, L., Gerschenson, L., Goyanes, S., (2009). Starch-vegetable fibre composites to protect food products. Carbohydrate polymers (75), 230-235.
Feng, X., Feng, L., Jin, M., Zhai, J., Jiang, L., Zhu, D., (2004). Reversible super-hydrophobicity to super-hydrophilicity transition of aligned ZnO nanorod films. Journal of the American Chemical Society (126), 62-63.
Ghanbarzadeh, B., Musavi, M., Oromiehie, A., Rezayi, K., Rad, E.R., Milani, J., (2007). Effect of plasticizing sugars on water vapor permeability, surface energy and microstructure properties of zein films. LWT-Food Science and Technology (40), 1191-1197.
Goudarzi, V., Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, I., Babaei-Ghazvini, A., (2017). Preparation of ecofriendly UV-protective food packaging material by starch/ TiO2 bio-nanocomposite: Characterization. International journal of biological macromolecules (95), 306-313.
Hamedani, N.F., Farzaneh, F., (2006). Synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals with hexagonal (wurtzite) structure in water using microwave irradiation. Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran (17), 231-234.
Hassannia-Kolaee, M., Khodaiyan, F., Pourahmad, R., Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, I., (2016). Development of ecofriendly bionanocomposite: Whey protein isolate/pullulan films with nano-SiO 2. International journal of biological macromolecules (86), 139-144.
Huang, W.-J., Fang, G.-C., Wang, C.-C., (2005). A nanometer-ZnO catalyst to enhance the ozonation of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol in water. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (260), 45-51.
Li, Y., Jiang, Y., Liu, F., Ren, F., Zhao, G., Leng, X., (2011). Fabrication and characterization of TiO 2/whey protein isolate nanocomposite film. Food Hydrocolloids (25), 1098-1104.
Metın, D., Tihminlioğlu, F., Balköse, D., Ülkü, S., (2004). The effect of interfacial interactions on the mechanical properties of polypropylene/natural zeolite composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing (35), 23-32.
Motedayen, A.A., Khodaiyan., F., Salehi, E. A., (2013). Development and characterisation of composite films made of kefiran and starch. Food Chemistry (136), 1231-1238.
Nakayama, N., Hayashi, T., (2007). Preparation and characterization of poly (l-lactic acid)/TiO 2 nanoparticle nanocomposite films with high transparency and efficient photodegradability. Polymer degradation and stability (92), 1255-1264.
Péroval, C., Debeaufort, F., Despré, D., Voilley, A., (2002). Edible arabinoxylan-based films. 1. Effects of lipid type on water vapor permeability, film structure, and other physical characteristics. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (50), 3977-3983.
Phan, T.D., Debeaufort, F., Luu, D., Voilley, A., (2005). Functional properties of edible agar-based and starch-based films for food quality preservation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (53), 973-981.
Piermaria, J., Bosch, A., Pinotti, A., Yantorno, O., Garcia, M.A., Abraham, A.G., (2011). Kefiran films plasticized with sugars and polyols: water vapor barrier and mechanical properties in relation to their microstructure analyzed by ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy. Food Hydrocolloids (25), 1261-1269.
Piermaria, J.A., Mariano, L., Abraham, A.G., (2008). Gelling properties of kefiran, a food-grade polysaccharide obtained from kefir grain. Food Hydrocolloids (22), 1520-1527.
Piermaria, J.A., Pinotti, A., Garcia, M.A., Abraham, A.G., (2009). Films based on kefiran, an exopolysaccharide obtained from kefir grain: Development and characterization. Food Hydrocolloids (23), 684-690.
Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, I., Khodaiyan, F., Mousavi, M., Yousefi, H., (2015a). Effect of γ-irradiation on the physical and mechanical properties of kefiran biopolymer film. International journal of biological macromolecules (74), 343-350.
Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi., I., Khodaiyan, F., Mousavi, M., Yousefi, H., (2015b). Green bionanocomposite based on kefiran and cellulose nanocrystals produced from beer industrial residues. International journal of biological macromolecules (77), 85-91.
Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, I., Khodaiyan, F., Mousavi, M., Yousefi, H., (2015c). Preparation of UV-protective kefiran/nano-ZnO nanocomposites: Physical and mechanical properties. International journal of biological macromolecules (72), 41-46.
Sionkowska, A., Wisniewski, M., Skopinska, J., Vicini, S., Marsano, E., (2005). The influence of UV irradiation on the mechanical properties of chitosan/poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) blends. Polymer degradation and stability (88), 261-267.
Tang, S., Zou, P., Xiong, H., Tang, H., (2008). Effect of nano-SiO2 on the performance of starch/polyvinyl alcohol blend films. Carbohydrate Polymers (72), 521-526.
Tharanathan, R.N., (2003). Biodegradable films and composite coatings: past, present and future. Trends in Food Science & Technology (14), 71-78.
Wacharawichanant, S., Thongyai, S., Phutthaphan, A., Eiamsam-ang, C., (2008). Effect of particle sizes of zinc oxide on mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of polyoxymethylene/zinc oxide nanocomposites. Polymer Testing (27), 971-976.
Wihodo, M., Moraru, C.I., (2013). Physical and chemical methods used to enhance the structure and mechanical properties of protein films: A review. Journal of food engineering (114), 292-302.
Xiong, M., Gu, G., You, B., Wu, L., (2003). Preparation and characterization of poly (styrene butylacrylate) latex/nano‐ZnO nanocomposites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science (90), 1923-1931.
Yu, J., Yang, J., Liu, B., Ma, X., (2009). Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized-pea starch/ZnO–carboxymethylcellulose sodium nanocomposites. Bioresource Technology (100), 2832-2841.
Zhang, L., Jiang, Y., Ding, Y., Povey, M., York, D., (2007). Investigation into the antibacterial behaviour of suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO nanofluids). Journal of Nanoparticle Research (9), 479-489.
Zhao, L., Mitomo, H., Zhai, M., Yoshii, F., Nagasawa, N., Kume, T., (2003). Synthesis of antibacterial PVA/CM-chitosan blend hydrogels with electron beam irradiation. Carbohydrate polymers (53), 439-446.
Zolfi, M., Khodaiyan, F., Mousavi, M., Hashemi, M., (2014a). Development and characterization of the kefiran-whey protein isolate-TiO 2 nanocomposite films. International journal of biological macromolecules (65), 340-345.
Zolfi, M., Khodaiyan, F., Mousavi, M., Hashemi, M., (2014b). The improvement of characteristics of biodegradable films made from kefiran–whey protein by nanoparticle incorporation. Carbohydrate polymers (109), 118-125.