Design, Manufacture, and Optimization of a Micro-Gasifier Biomass Cook Stove

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc. of Recycling and Resources Management, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

3 Professor, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.


In international development programs on improvement of energy supply for cooking in remote regions, where people are dependent on wood as the sole fuel resource, biomass cook stoves have a remarkable place. The thermal efficiency of such stoves are up to 3 times of those of traditional open fire stoves. In this research, a biomass cook stove was manufactured and evaluated according to the emission and performance test protocol. The fire power of the stove was 1.4 kW, and flaming duration by feeding 400 g of pistachio shell was recorded to be 26 minutes. In order to improve the pyrolysis vapor combustion process, a damper was embedded in the stove, and also the outer wall of the stove was isolated by using a ceramic layer. Results showed that the control index was improved by three folds. Also, burning duration increased up to 57% and the emission of carbon monoxide was found to be in the permissible range.


Main Subjects

Anderson, P. (2009). Construction Plans for the “Champion-2008” TLUD Gasifier Cookstove (including operational instructions). United States of America. http://www. bioenergylists. org/files/Construction% 20Plans: 202009-202003.
Carvalho, R. L., Vicente, E. D., Tarelho, L. A. C., & Jensen, O. M. (2018). Wood stove combustion air retrofits: A low cost way to increase energy savings in dwellings. Energy and Buildings, 164, 140-152.
Champier, D., Bedecarrats, J., Rivaletto, M., & Strub, F. (2010). Thermoelectric power generation from biomass cook stoves. Energy, 35(2), 935-942
DeFoort, M., C. L’Orange, C. Kreutzer, N. Lorenz, W. Kamping and J. Alders. (2010). Stove Manufacturers Emissions and Performance Test Protocol (EPTP); Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory, Colorado State University: Fort Collins, CO.
Edwards, R. D., K. R. Smith, J. Zhang and Y. Ma. (2003). Models to predict emissions of health-damaging pollutants and global warming contributions of residential fuel/stove combinations in China. Chemosphere, 50, 201-215.
EPA. 1990. NAAQS Table : National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six principal pollutants, which are called "criteria" air pollutants. Available at: Accessed
Febriansyah, H., A. A. Setiawan, K. Suryopratomo and A. Setiawan. 2014. Gama Stove: Biomass Stove for Palm Kernel Shells in Indonesia. Energy Procedia, 47, 123-132.
Friedl, A., E. Padouvas, H. Rotter and K. Varmuza. 2005. Prediction of heating values of biomass fuel from elemental composition. Analytica Chimica Acta, 544, 191-198.
Lertsatitthanakorn, C., J. Jamradloedluk and M. Rungsiyopas. (2014). Study of Combined Rice Husk Gasifier Thermoelectric Generator. Energy Procedia 52: 159-166.
Mallaki, M., & Fatehi, R. (2014). Design of a biomass power plant for burning date palm waste to cogenerate electricity and distilled water. Renewable Energy, 63, 286 – 291.
Monona, R. (1998). CARBON MONOXIDE & CO DETECTORS DATA SHEET. Available at:
Mukunda, H., S. Dasappa, P. Paul, N. Rajan, M. Yagnaraman, D. R. Kumar and M. Deogaonkar. (2010). Gasifier stoves-science, technology and field outreach. Current Science (Bangalore) 98: 627-638.
Panwar, N. L. (2009). Design and performance evaluation of energy efficient biomass gasifier based cookstove on multi fuels. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 14, 627-633.
Parmigiani, S. P., F. Vitali, A. M. Lezzi and M. Vaccari. (2014). Design and performance assessment of a rice husk fueled stove for household cooking in a typical sub-Saharan setting. Energy for Sustainable Development 23, 15-24.
Peduzzi, E., G. Boissonnet and F. Maréchal. (2016). Biomass modelling: Estimating thermodynamic properties from the elemental composition. Fuel 181, 207-217.
Nejat, P., Morsoni, A. K., Jomehzadeh, F., Behzad, H., Saeed Vesali, M., & Majid, M. Z. A. (2013). Iran's achievements in renewable energy during fourth development program in comparison with global trend. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 22, 561-570.
Raman, P., J. Murali, D. Sakthivadivel and V. S. Vigneswaran. (2013). Performance evaluation of three types of forced draft cook stoves using fuel wood and coconut shell. Biomass and Bioenergy 49: 333-340.
Rasoulkhani, M. R., M. A. Ebrahimi-nik, M. H. Abbaspour-Fard and R. Abbas. (2016). Microgasification introduction and its utilization on household cooking energy supply. in 10th National Congress on Agr. Machinery Eng. (Biosystem) & Mechanization of Iran. Mashhad.
Roth, C. (2011). Micro-Gasification: Cooking with Gas From Biomass: An Introduction to the Concept and the Applications of Wood-Gas Burning Technologies for Cooking. GIZ HERA—Poverty-Oriented Basic Energy Service.
Sedighi, M. and H. Salarian. (2017). A comprehensive review of technical aspects of biomass cookstoves. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 70: 656-665.
Sornek, K., Filipowicz, M., & Rzepka, K. (2016). Study of clean combustion of wood in a stove-fireplace with accumulation. Journal of the Energy Institute.
Still, D., MacCarty, N., Ogle, D., Bond, T., & Bryden, M. (2011). Test results of cook stove performance. Partnership for Clean Indoor Air, Portland, OR. Available at: http://www. 2015/05/ Test Results Cookstove Performance.  pdf.
Sutar, K. B., S. Kohli, M. R. Ravi and A. Ray. (2015). Biomass cookstoves: A review of technical aspects. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 41, 1128-1166.
Tryner, J., J. W. Tillotson, M. E. Baumgardner, J. T. Mohr, M. W. DeFoort and A. J. Marchese. (2016). The effects of air flow rates, secondary air inlet geometry, fuel type, and operating mode on the performance of gasifier cookstoves. Environmental Science & Technology 50, 9754-9763.
WBT Technical Committee. (2014). The Water Boiling Test: Version 4.2. 3. Available at: DOCUMENT/ file/000/000/399-1.pdf.