Energy Indices and Environmental Impact Assessment of Industrial Bread Production by Using Life Cycle

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Master graduated, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Undergraduate student, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

4 Ph.D. graduated, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


In this research, the energy consumption, environmental emissions, modeling and optimization in different stages of wheat and bread production was studied in Guilan province. Data were gathered by using the questionnaire, archiving documents of agriculture Jihad, visiting the Bread Factory and Sangak bread Bakery and interviewing the relevant experts. Also, by assessing environmental pollutants, the highest environmental burden was calculated in different indices. Results showed that the average total energy inputs and outputs of wheat production were 15651.27 and 2760.22 MJ/ha, respectively, and the total energy in the modern and traditional bread production chain were 263299.17 and 468747.289 MJ/10 ton bread, respectively. The energy ratio of wheat production was equal to 1.76, indicating the positive energy efficiency of wheat production on the area of the study. The results of data envelopment analysis also showed, the energy ratio could be increased from 1.76  to 2.70 by applying better management.


Main Subjects

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