Development of a Novel Niosomal System (Phyto-niosome) for Encapsulation of Grape Stem Extract

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD candidate in food science and technology, Grape Environmental Science Department, Research Institute for Grapes and Raisin

2 PhD of food science and Technology, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

3 3- PhD of food science and Technology, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.

4 Drug Applied Research Center, University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

5 Associate Professor of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran


Herbal compounds, so-called phyto-constituents, illustrate poor stability and absorption. Niosomes, which are made of nonionic surfactants, create better chemical and stability conditions, higher absorption rate and bioavailability besides lipid vesicles. This study covers the preparation and characterization of phyto-niosomes of grape stem extract by modified thin film hydration technique. The developed formulations were statistically optimized using response surface methodology, The applied Box–Behnken design had three factors with three levels for each factor. Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB), phytosterol percent and extract amount were selected as the formulation variables. The results showed that extract concentration was the most important parameter affecting the encapsulation efficiency and poly dispersity index. Also HLB had the most important effects on the particle size. The optimized phyto-niosomes showed vesicle size, entrapment efficiency and poly dispersity index (PDI) of 173nm, 72% and 0.32 respectively .Before the encapsulation process, extracts of dried stems were prepared by Green extraction method and phenolic composition was identified with LC-MS/MS. Indeed, it was found that phyto-niosomes could be represented as an inexpensive and efficient nano vesicular carrier for nutraceuticals delivery in food industry.


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