Application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) In Order to Reduction of Consumption Inputs in Silage Corn production in the Shahrekord County

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, PO Box 115, Shahrekord, 88186-34141, Iran.

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, PO Box 115, Shahrekord, 88186-34141, Iran

3 Department of agricultural machinery and mechanization- Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan-Mollasani


Analysis of energy consumption provides useful information for planners and policymakers to improve the efficiency of energy consumption. This study was conducted to evaluate and investigating the the energy flow and greenhouse emissions in silage corn production by data envelopment analysis method. The primary data was collected from 50 farms of silage corn production in the Shahrekord County by simple random sampling. The total amount of inputs energy and output energy was 77693 MJ.ha-1 and 502669 MJ.ha-1, respectively, which after improving in inputs consumption was resulted a reduction of 12080 MJ /ha in total inputs energy. Energy ratio (ER) and energy productivity (EP) were determined as 3.1, 2.57 in actual conditions and 3.67 and 2.17 in optimization conditions, respectively. Electricity was identified as major contributor to total energy consumption as 41205 MJ.ha-1 (53.3%) and also after improving in inputs consumption, the summation of water and electricity had the most contribution on the total energy saving with the share of 22%. Also, the total GHG emission in actual and optimum conditions were calculated as 2885.5 and 2554.5 kgCO2eq. per ha, respectively.


Alluvione, F., Moretti, B., Sacco, D., Grignani, C. (2011). EUE (energy use efficiency) of cropping systems for a sustainable agriculture. Energy, 36(7), 4468-4481.
Anonymous. 2017. Annual agricultural statistics of Charmahal and Bakhtiary province in Iran. <> [In Farsi].
Bames, A. (2006). Does multi-functionality affect technical efficiency? A non-parametric analysis of the Scottish dairy industry. Jornal of Environmental Management, 80(4), 287-294.
Banker, R. D., Charnes, A. & Cooper, W.W. (1984). Some models for estimating technical and scale inefficiencies in data envelopment analysis. Management science, 30(9), 1078-1092.‏
Charnes, A., Cooper, W. W., Rhodes, E. (1978). Measuring the efficiency of decision making units. European journal of operational research, 2(6), 429-444.‏
Chamsing, A., Salokhe, V.M., Singh, G. (2006). Energy consumption analysis for selected crops in different regions of Thailand. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal, 8, 1-18.
Chang, M. C. (2014). Energy intensity, target level of energy intensity, and room for improvement in energy intensity: An application to the study of regions in the EU. Energy Policy, 67, 648-655.‏
Cochran, W.G. (1977). Sampling Techniques, third ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. USA.
Dyer, J.A., Desjardins, R.L. (2003). Simulated farm fieldwork. Energy consumption and related greenhouse gas emissions in Canada. Biosystems Engineering, 85(4), 503-513.
Dyer, J.A., Desjardins, R.L. (2006). Carbon dioxide emissions associated with the manufacturing of tractors and farm machinery in Canada. Biosystems Engineering, 93(1), 107-118.
Elhami, B., Shahvarooghi Farahani, S. & Marzban, A. (2019). Improvement of energy efficiency and environmental impacts of rainbow trout in Iran. Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture, 2, 13–27.
Esfahani, S., M. Zamani, D., and Shahrami, E. (2013). Evaluation of Energy Indices in Qazvin Broiler Farms using Data Envelopment Analysis. Journal of Biosystem Engineering, 2(2), 48-53. [In Farsi].
FAO. (2019). Food and Agriculture Organization. <>
Ghasemi Mobtaker, H., Akram, A., Keyhani, A. (2012). Energy use and sensitivity analysis of energy inputs for alfalfa production in Iran. Energy Sustainable and Development, 16, 84-89.
Gheisari, K., Mehrnoo, H., Gafarian, A. (2007). An introduction to the fuzzy data envelopment analysis. Center of Scientific Publications Qazvin Islamic Azad University, 1, pp.184. [In Farsi].
Hatirli, S.A., Ozkan, B., Fert, K. (2005). An econometric analysis of energy inputoutput in Turkish agriculture. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 9, 608-623.
Houshyar, E., Azadi, H, Almassi, M., Sheikh Davoodi, M.J., Witlox, F. (2012). Sustainable and efficient energy consumption of corn production in Southwest Iran: Combination of multi-fuzzy and DEA modeling. Energy, 44, 672-681.
IPCC. (2007). IPCC Assessment Report 4. <>
Khoshnevisan, B., Rafiee, S., Omid, M., Mousazadeh, H. (2013). Applying data envelopment analysis approach to improve energy efficiency and reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emission of wheat production. Energy, 58, 588-593.
Khoshnevisan, B., Rafiee, S., Omid, M., Mousazadeh, H., Rajaeifar, M.A. (2014). Application of artificial neural networks for prediction of output energy and GHG emissions in potato production in Iran. Agricultural System, 123, 120-127.
Kitani, O. (1999). Energy and biomass engineering, CIGR handbook of agricultural engineering. ASAE Publications, St Joseph, MI. pp.351.
Lal, R. (2004). Carbon emission from farm operations. Environment International, 30(7), 981-990.
Mani, I., Kumar, P., Panwar, J.S., Kant, K. (2007). Variation in energy consumption in production of wheat-maize with varying altitudes in hilly regions of Himachal Pradesh, India. Energy, 32, 2336-2339.
Mohammadi, A., Rafiee, S., Mohtasebi, S.S., Mousavi-Avval, S.H., Rafiee, H. (2011). Energy efficiency improvement and input cost saving in kiwifruit production using Data Envelopment Analysis approach. Renewable Energy, 36, 2573-2579.
Mousavi-Avval, S.H., Rafiee, SH., Jafari, A., Mohammadi, A., (2011). Improving energy use efficiency of canola production using data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. Energy, 36, 2765-2772.
Nabavi-Pelesaraei, A., Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, H., Qasemi-Kordkheili, P., Kouchaki-Penchah, H., Riahi-Dorcheh, F. (2016). Applying optimization techniques to improve of energy efficiency and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of wheat production. Energy, 103, 672-678.
Nabavi-Pelesaraei, A., Rafiee, S., Mohtasebi, S. S., Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, H., Chau, K. W. (2017). Energy consumption enhancement and environmental life cycle assessment in paddy production using optimization techniques.  Journal of Cleaner Production, 162, 571-586.
Pimentel, D., Williamson, S., Pagan, O.G., Kontak, C., Mulkey, S.E.  (2008). Reducing energy inputs in the US food system. Human Ecology, 36, 459-471.
Pishgar-Komleh, S.H., Keyhani, A., Mostofi-Sarkari, M.R. and Jafari, A. (2012a). Energy and economic analysis of different seed corn harvesting systems in Iran. Energy, 43, 469-476.
Pishgar-Komleh, S.H., Ghahderijani, M., Sefeedpari, P. (2012b). Energy consumption and CO2 emissions analysis of potato production based on different farm size levels in Iran. Journal of Cleaner Production, 33, 183-191.
Pishgar-Komleh, S.H., and Omid, M., and Heidari, M.D. (2013). On the study of energy use and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in greenhouse cucumber production in Yazd province. Energy, 59, 63-71.
Schroede, J.W. (2004). Corn Silage Management, NDSU Extension Service, publication; AS-1253.
Anonymous. (2016). Statistical Yearbook of Charmahal and Bakhtiary province in Iran. < English/Iran-Statistical-Yearbook> [In Farsi].
Sefeedpari, P., Rafiee, S., Pishgar Komleh, S.H., Ghahderijani. (2012). A source-wise and operation-wise energy use analysis for corn silage production, a case study of Tehran province, Iran. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 1, 158–166.
Singh, G., Singh, S., and Singh, J. (2004). Optimization of energy inputs for wheat crop in Punjab. Energy Conversion Management, 45, 453–465.
Zarchi-Yazdi, M., Sheikh Davoodi, M.J., Khoda Rahimpour, Z. (2010). Investigation of the energy consumption trend in corn production in the north of Khuzestan. 2010. 6th National Congress of Agricultural Machinery and Mechanization. Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran (Karaj) [In Farsi].