Investigation on the Antioxidant Activity of Gallic Acid, Methyl Gallate and Syringic Acid in Soybean Oil

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Basic Sciences, Sari Branch of Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran

3 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Engineering and Basic Sciences, Sari Branch of Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran


In the present study, oxidative stability of gallic acid, methyl gallate, and syringic acid at four concentration (200, 400, 800, and 1600 ppm) and three temprature (110, 120, and 130 °C) levels in soybean oil was studied using rancimat. The results showed that the fatty acid profile of this oil, mainly consist of linoleic acid (51.01 %), oleic acid (24.50 %), palmitic acid (12.20 %), and linolenic acid (7.10 %). Among various tempretures, the induction period of gallic acid, methyl gallate, and syringic acid (200-1600 ppm) was at the range of 2.90 to 17.49, 2.38 to 16.94, 1.27 to 5.41 h, respectively. With increasing the conceration of gallic acid, methyl gallate, and syringic acid or decreasing temperature, the oxidative stability was increased, thus oxidation rate was decreaed. Antioxidant activity of gallic acid and methyl gallate in soybean oil were not difference at different temperatures, but syringic acid showed lower power in oxidative stability of soybean oil, as compered with control sample. Generally, gallic acid and especially methyl gallate have high potential in increasing oxidative stability of edible oils, specially soybean oil.


Elisia, I., Young, J.W., Yuan, Y.V. and Kitts, D.D. (2013). Association between tocopherol isoform composition and lipid oxidation in selected multiple edible oils. Food research international, 52(2), pp.508-514.
Farrokhi, H.; Yassini Ardakani, S.A. (2014), Investigating the Oxidative Stability of Different Vegetable Oils Produced in Iran Using Ranciomet Method, First National Conference on Meals, Mashhad, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Mashhad University Jihad
Farahmandfar, R. and Asnaashari, M. (2017). Comprehensive chemistry and technology of edible oils. Sahra press, Iran.
Farahmandfar, R., Asnaashari, M. (2018). Assessment of antioxidant activity and kinetic oxidative parameters of syringic acid and gallic acid in sunflower oil. Food Science and Technology, 15 (83): 1-14.
Farahmandfar, R., Asnaashari, M., Asadi, Y. and Beyranvand, B. (2019). Comparison of Bioactive Compounds of Matricaria recutita Extracted by Ultrasound and Maceration and their Effects on Preventing Sunflower Oil During Frying. Current Nutrition & Food Science, 15(2), pp.156-164.
Garrido, J., Gaspar, A., Garrido, E.M., Miri, R., Tavakkoli, M., Pourali, S., Saso, L., Borges, F. and Firuzi, O. (2012). Alkyl esters of hydroxycinnamic acids with improved antioxidant activity and lipophilicity protect PC12 cells against oxidative stress. Biochimie, 94(4), pp.961-967.
Jacobsen, C., Hartvigsen, K., Lund, P., Adler-Nissen, J., Holmer, G., and Meyer, A.S. (2000). Oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise 2. Assessment of the efficacy of different tocopherol antioxidant systems by discriminant partial least squares regression analysis, European Food Research and Technology, 210:  242–257.
Jacobsen, C., Hartvigsen, K., Thomsen, M.K., Hansen, L.F., Lund, P., Skibsted, L.H., Holmer, G., Adler-Nissen, J., Meyer, A.S. (2001). Ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but not gallic acid, strongly inhibited oxidative deterioration. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49: 1009–1019.
Kikuzaki, H., Hisamoto, M., Hirose, K., Akiyama, K., and Taniguchi, H. (2002). Antioxidant properties of ferulic acid and its related compounds, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,50: 2161–2168.
Kritchevsky, D., Tepper, S.A., and Langan, J. (2010). Influence of short-term heating on composition of edible fats. Journal of Nutrition, 77: 127–130.
Lu, Z., Nie, G., Belton, P.S., Tang, H., Zhao, B. (2006). Structure–activity relationship analysis of antioxidant ability and neuroprotective effect of gallic acid derivatives. Neurochemistry International, 48: 263–274.
Medina, I., Lois, S., Alcantara, D., Lucas, R., Morales, J.C. (2009). Effect of lipophilization of hydroxytyrosol on its antioxidant activity in fish oils and fish oil in water emulsions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57: 9773–9779.
Mohammadi, T., Hatami, M., Mirzaee Sisaabad, Y., Hooshiari, A., Nejatian, M. (2014). Formulation of Blend Oil Containing Canola and Sesame Oils without Synthetic Antioxidants. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology. 9 (3) :83-92
Saoudi, S., Chammem, N., Sifaoui, I., Bouassida-Beji, M., Jiménez, I.A., Bazzocchi, I.L., Silva, S.D., Hamdi, M. and Bronze, M.R. (2016). Influence of Tunisian aromatic plants on the prevention of oxidation in soybean oil under heating and frying conditions. Food chemistry, 212, pp.503-511.
Shahidi, F., Wanasundara, P.K. (1992). Phenolic antioxidants. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 32: 67–103.
Tong, L.M., Sasaki, S., McClements, D.J. and Decker, E.A. (2000). Mechanisms of the antioxidant activity of a high molecular weight fraction of whey. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(5), pp.1473-1478.
Wang, H., Liu, F. Yang, L., Zu, Y., Wang, H., Qu, S. Zhang, Y. (2011). Oxidative stability of fish oil supplemented with carnosic acid compared with synthetic antioxidants during long term storage. Food Chemistry, 128: 93–99.