Evaluation of Three Methods for Separating Pumpkin Seeds

Document Type : Research Paper


1 College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran

2 Department of Mechanics of Biosystem Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


Three methods of separating hollow from fill seeds have been studied to improve the separation quality of pumpkin seeds. In the first method, the seperation was performed based on seeds’heat capacity by measuring the seeds’ temperature with a thermal camera and examining the seeds’ cooling process. In the second method, the seeds’ terminal velocities were obtained by theoretical calculations and then examined by a practical experiment using an electro-fan. In the third method, with theoretical calculations and obtaining the frictional and electrostatic forces, this method’s efficiency was evaluated in practice by a rotating disc. These three methods were evaluated based on accuracy, cost, required time of the process, and equipment used. In this study, it was found that the accuracy of the separation method based on heat capacity (100%) is higher than all methods, followed by the method based on limit velocity (93%) and coefficient of friction (86%), respectively.


Abdel-Salam, M., Ahmed, A., & El-Kishky, H. (2004). Seeds sorting by electrostatic separation: An experimental study. In: 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society.
Agbetoye, L. A. S. (2004). A Pedal-Operated Cowpea Winnower for Small and Medium Scale Farmers. Bulletin of Science Association of Nigeria Vol, 25, 261-265. ‏
Al hosseini, A., Tavakoli por, H., Jafari, S.M., & Ghods vali, A. (2011). Investigation of physical properties of two pea cultivars. Journal of innovation Food Science and Technology. (In Farsi)
Baldwin, H. I. (1932). Alcohol separation of empty seed, and its effect on the germination of red spruce. American Journal of Botany, 1-11. ‏
Barthel, C. N. (2011). Determination of vegetable consumption and factors that affect intake in a rural community.Ph.D. dissertation University of Wisconsin-Stout. ‏
Basiry, M., & Esehaghbeygi, A. (2012). Cleaning and charging of seeds with an electrostatic separator. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 28(1), 143-147. ‏
Chavoshgoli, E., Abdollahpour, S., Abdi, R., & Babaie, A. (2014). Aerodynamic and some physical properties of sunflower seeds as affected by moisture content. Agric Eng Int: CIGR Journal16(2), 136-142. ‏
Dascalescu, L., Dragan, C., Bilici, M., Beleca, R., Hemery, Y., & Rouau, X. (2010). Electrostatic basis for separation of wheat bran tissues. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 46(2), 659-665. ‏
Digikala. (2021). Digital and accurate measurement tools. Retrieved March 8, 2021, from https://www.digikala.com
Doshvarpassand, S., Wu, C., & Wang, X. (2019). An overview of corrosion defect characterization using active infrared thermography. Infrared Physics and Technology, 96, 366-389. ‏
ElMasry, G., ElGamal, R., Mandour, N., Gou, P., Al-Rejaie, S., Belin, E., & Rousseau, D. (2020). Emerging thermal imaging techniques for seed quality evaluation: principles and applications. Food Research International, 109025. ‏
EShop. (2021). Temperature and humidity modules. Retrieved March 8, 2021, from https://www.eshop.eca.ir
Gagliardi, B., & Marcos-Filho, J. (2011). Relationship between germination and bell pepper seed structure assessed by the X-ray test. Scientia Agricola, 68(4), 411-416. ‏
Granitto, P. M., Garralda, P. A., Verdes, P. F., & Ceccatto, H. A. (2002). Boosting classifiers for weed seeds identification. In VIII Congreso Argentino de Ciencias de la Computación.
Guo, S., Kan, Z., Zhang, R., Guo, W., An, H., & Cong, T. (2011). Separation test of electrostatic separating device for machine-harvested seed cotton and plastic film residue. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 27(1), 6-10.
Hajalioghli, Z., & Moghaddam, P. A. (2019).  Detection and classification of bruises on ‘Red Delicious’ apples using active thermography. ‏ (In Farsi)
Han, X. Z., Wang, K. J., Yuan, Y., Chen, C., & Liang, L. (2014). Research on grading detection of the wheat seeds. The Scientific World Journal. ‏
Jahanbakhshi, A., Yeganeh, R., & Akhondpamchi, A. (2016). Determination of physical, mechanical and hydrodynamic properties of artichoke. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. (In Farsi)
Jamil, N., & Bejo, S. K. (2014). Husk detection using thermal imaging technology. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 2, 128-135. ‏
Jamil, N., Sembok, T. M. T., & Bakar, Z. A. (2008). Noise removal and enhancement of binary images using morphological operations. In: 2008 International Symposium on Information Technology (Vol. 4). (pp. 1-6). IEEE
Joshi, D. C., Das, S. K., & Mukherjee, R. K. (1993). Physical properties of pumpkin seeds. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 54(3), 219-229. ‏
Khodabakhshian, R., Emadi, B., Khojastehpour, M., & Golzarian, M. R. (2018). Aerodynamic separation and cleaning of pomegranate arils from rind and white segments (locular septa). Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 17(1), 61-68. ‏
McCormack, J. H. (2004). Seed processing and storage: principles and practices of seed harvesting, processing, and storage: an organic seed production manual for seed growers in the Mid-Atlantic and Southern US. McCormack.
McLemore, B. F. (1965). Pentane flotation for separating full and empty longleaf pine seeds. ‏ Journal of Forest Science.
Men, S., Yan, L., Liu, J., Qian, H., & Luo, Q. (2017). A classification method for seed viability assessment with infrared thermography. Sensors, 17(4), 845. ‏
Mohsenin, N.N. (1974) Physical properties of plant and animal materials. New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.
Patel, S. (2013). Pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.) seeds as nutraceutic: a review on status quo and scopes. Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 6(3), 183-189. ‏
Salimi, Z., & Boelt, B. (2019). Classification of processing damage in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) seeds by multispectral image analysis. Sensors, 19(10), 2360. ‏
Sharma, P., Kaur, G., Kehinde, B. A., Chhikara, N., Panghal, A., & Kaur, H. (2020). Pharmacological and biomedical uses of extracts of pumpkin and its relatives and applications in the food industry: a review. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 26(1), 79-95. ‏
Siano, F., Straccia, M. C., Paolucci, M., Fasulo, G., Boscaino, F., & Volpe, M. G. (2016). Physico‐chemical properties and fatty acid composition of pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96(5), 1730-1735. ‏
Simonyan, J. K., & Yiljep, D. Y. (2008). Investigating grain separation and cleaning efficiency distribution of a conventional stationary rasp-bar sorghum thresher. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal.
Squillace, A. E. (1955). Variation in cone properties, seed yield, and seed weight in western white pine when pollination is controlled. Graduate Student Theses ‏ University of Montana
Stevenson, D. G., Eller, F. J., Wang, L., Jane, J. L., Wang, T., & Inglett, G. E. (2007). Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(10), 4005-4013. ‏
Tahmasebi, M., & Hashemi, S.J. (2014). Study the effect of moisture and cultivar on seed terminal velocity in Modified Iranian Rice Cultivars. In: 22nd International Congress on Food Technology. (In Farsi)
Tigabu, M., & Odén, P. C. (2004). Simultaneous detection of filled, empty and insect-infested seeds of three Larix species with single seed near-infrared transmittance spectroscopy. New Forests, 27(1), 39-53. ‏
Yadav, B. G. (2000). Sorting of viable seeds in electrostatic field. Aspects of Applied Biology, (61), 297-304. ‏