Comparison of Essential Oil from Ocimum Basilicum Obtained via Sequential Ultrasound-Microwave Extraction with Microwave Method

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran.


Determining the best extraction method to obtain high yield of essential oils from medicinal plants has been identified as one of the challenges in scientific research. The sequential ultrasound-microwave method is a new extraction method that in this research has been applied to extraction of essential oil from basil. In order to investigate the effect of this approach on enhancing extraction yield, the microwave method was examined as a base method. To optimize the extraction conditions of the sequential method, ultrasonic power, microwave power, and extraction time were determined as independent variables and essential oil yield as response. Experiments were modeled by central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The highest yield (2.3% w/w) was obtained at 300 W of ultrasonic power, 600 W of microwave power, and 40 min of extraction time. While the base method yield was 0.74% w/w. The chemical composition analysis of the active compounds showed that the number of compounds in the sequential approach is higher than those in the microwave method. Furthermore, by comparing the antioxidant properties obtained by DPPH and FRAP methods, the sequential method was better in preserving the antioxidant properties of basil essential oil. Scanning electron microscopy images also showed more damage to the glands containing the active ingredients by the sequential process than the base method. Generally, the sequential ultrasound-microwave method can be introduced as an efficient method for the extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum.


Ahmed, A. F., Attia, F. A., Liu, Z., Li, C., Wei, J., & Kang, W. (2019). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of essential oils and extracts of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants. Food Science Human Wellness, 8(3), 299-305.
Al Abbasy, D. W., Pathare, N., Al-Sabahi, J. N., & Khan, S. A. (2015). Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil isolated from Omani basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 5(8), 645-649.
Arafat, Y., Altemimi, A., Ibrahim, S. A., & Badwaik, L. S. (2020). Valorization of Sweet Lime Peel for the Extraction of Essential Oil by Solvent Free Microwave Extraction Enhanced with Ultrasound Pretreatment. Molecules, 25(18), 4072.
Avetisyan, A., Markosian, A., Petrosyan, M., Sahakyan, N., Babayan, A., Aloyan, S., & Trchounian, A. (2017). Chemical composition and some biological activities of the essential oils from basil Ocimum different cultivars. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 17(1), 1-8.
Azmir, J., Zaidul, I. S. M., Rahman, M., Sharif, K., Mohamed, A., Sahena, F., . . . Omar, A. (2013). Techniques for extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials: A review. Journal of food engineering, 117(4), 426-436.
Bachtler, S., & Bart, H.-J. (2021). Increase the yield of bioactive compounds from elder bark and annatto seeds using ultrasound and microwave assisted extraction technologies. Food Bioproducts Processing, 125, 1-13.
Bimakr, M., Rahman, R. A., Taip, F. S., Adzahan, N. M., Sarker, M., Islam, Z., & Ganjloo, A. (2012). Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition. Molecules, 17(10), 11748-11762.
Boudiaf, K., Houcher, Z., Sobhi, W., & Benboubetra, M. (2010). Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-xanthine oxidoreductase activities of Nigella sativa Linn seeds’ extracts. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 4(1), 7-16.
Chan, C.-H., Yusoff, R., Ngoh, G.-C., & Kung, F. W.-L. (2011). Microwave-assisted extractions of active ingredients from plants. Journal of Chromatography A, 1218(37), 6213-6225.
Chen, F., Liu, S., Zhao, Z., Gao, W., Ma, Y., Wang, X., . . . Luo, D. (2020). Ultrasound pre-treatment combined with microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of essential oils from Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. leaves and its chemical composition and biological activity. Industrial Crops Products, 143, 111908.
Croteau, R., Kutchan, T., & Lewis, N. (2000). Natural products (secondary metabolites). Biochemistry Molecular Biology of Plants American Society of Plant Biologists, 1250-1318.
da Silva Gündel, S., Velho, M. C., Diefenthaler, M. K., Favarin, F. R., Copetti, P. M., de Oliveira Fogaça, A., . . . Sagrillo, M. R. (2018). Basil oil-nanoemulsions: Development, cytotoxicity and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Journal of Drug Delivery Science Technology, 46, 378-383.
Damyeh, M. S., Niakousari, M., & Saharkhiz, M. J. (2016). Ultrasound pretreatment impact on Prangos ferulacea Lindl. and Satureja macrosiphonia Bornm. essential oil extraction and comparing their physicochemical and biological properties. Industrial Crops Products, 87, 105-115.
Dar, R. A., Shahnawaz, M., & Qazi, P. H. (2017). General overview of medicinal plants: A review. The Journal of Phytopharmacology, 6(6), 349-351.
Farnsworth, N. R., Akerele, O., Bingel, A. S., Soejarto, D. D., & Guo, Z. (1985). Medicinal plants in therapy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 63(6), 965-981.
Gezici, S., & Şekeroğlu, N. (2019). Current perspectives in the application of medicinal plants against cancer: novel therapeutic agents. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 19(1), 101-111.
Gupta, A., Naraniwal, M., & Kothari, V. (2012). Modern extraction methods for preparation of bioactive plant extracts. International Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences, 1(1), 8-26.
Hanif, M. A., Al-Maskari, M. Y., Al-Maskari, A., Al-Shukaili, A., Al-Maskari, A. Y., & Al-Sabahi, J. N. (2011). Essential oil composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of unexplored Omani basil. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(5), 751-757.
Hosu, A., Cristea, V.-M., & Cimpoiu, C. (2014). Analysis of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins content in Romanian red wines: Prediction of antioxidant activities and classification of wines using artificial neural networks. Food Chemistry, 150, 113-118.
Karimi, S., Sharifzadeh, S., & Abbasi, H. (2020). Sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted extraction as a green method to extract essential oil from Zataria multiflora. Journal of Food Bioprocess Engineering.
Lee, S.-J., Umano, K., Shibamoto, T., & Lee, K.-G. (2005). Identification of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chemistry, 91(1), 131-137.
Li, H., Ge, Y., Luo, Z., Zhou, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, J., & Fu, Q. (2017). Evaluation of the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of distillate and residue fractions of sweet basil essential oil. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54(7), 1882-1890.
Lu, X., Zheng, Z., Li, H., Cao, R., Zheng, Y., Yu, H., . . . Zheng, B. (2017). Optimization of ultrasonic-microwave assisted extraction of oligosaccharides from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds. Industrial Crops Products, 107, 546-557.
Muráriková, A., Ťažký, A., Neugebauerová, J., Planková, A., Jampílek, J., Mučaji, P., & Mikuš, P. (2017). Characterization of essential oil composition in different basil species and pot cultures by a GC-MS method. Molecules, 22(7), 1221.
Nazarian-Samani, Z., Sewell, R. D., Lorigooini, Z., & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2018). Medicinal plants with multiple effects on diabetes mellitus and its complications: A systematic review. Current diabetes reports, 18(10), 1-13.
Ollanketo, M., Peltoketo, A., Hartonen, K., Hiltunen, R., & Riekkola, M.-L. (2002). Extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) by pressurized hot water and conventional methods: antioxidant activity of the extracts. European Food Research Technology, 215(2), 158-163.
Politeo, O., Jukic, M., & Milos, M. (2007). Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of free volatile aglycones from basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) compared with its essential oil. Food chemistry, 101(1), 379-385.
Simon, J. E., Morales, M. R., Phippen, W. B., Vieira, R. F., & Hao, Z. (1999). Basil: a source of aroma compounds and a popular culinary and ornamental herb. Perspectives on new crops new uses, 16, 499-505.
Singh, S., Singh, S. K., & Yadav, A. (2013). A review on Cassia species: Pharmacological, traditional and medicinal aspects in various countries. American Journal of Phytomedicine Clinical Therapeutics, 1(3), 291-312.
Stanojevic, L. P., Stanojevic, J. S., Savic, V. L., Cvetkovic, D. J., Kolarevic, A., Marjanovic-Balaban, Z., & Nikolic, L. B. (2019). Peppermint and basil essential oils: chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo estimation of skin irritation. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 22(4), 979-993.
Tran, T., Ngo, T., Dao, T., Nguyen, P., Pham, T., Le, X., . . . Linh, H. (2020). Effect of microwaves energy on volatile compounds in Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) leaves essential oil. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 736(3), 032013.
Tran, T. H., Nguyen, H. H. H., Nguyen, D. C., Nguyen, T. Q., Tan, H., Nhan, L. T. H., . . . Nguyen, T. D. (2018). Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil from vietnamese basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) using response surface methodology. Processes, 6(11), 206.
Wen, L., Zhang, Z., Sun, D.-W., Sivagnanam, S. P., & Tiwari, B. K. (2020). Combination of emerging technologies for the extraction of bioactive compounds. Critical Reviews in Food Science Nutrition, 60(11), 1826-1841.
Zhan, Y., An, X., Wang, S., Sun, M., & Zhou, H. (2020). Basil polysaccharides: A review on extraction, bioactivities and pharmacological applications. Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry, 28(1), 115179.
Volume 53, Issue 1
April 2022
Pages 25-40
  • Receive Date: 12 June 2021
  • Revise Date: 22 November 2021
  • Accept Date: 08 January 2022
  • First Publish Date: 21 April 2022