Finite Element Simulation of Dynamic Apple Damage Based on Pendulum Impact Test Data and Its Validation by Scanning Electron Microscopy

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Biosystem Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran


Abstract: Apple fruit is subjected to multiple impact loads during postharvest processes, which leads to injury and bruising. The aim of this study was to simulate the forces and analyze the damage caused to the Red Delicious apple cultivar due to the impact loads, in order to provide solutions for designing appropriate processes and machines. To achieve this goal, the physical and mechanical properties of apples in three parts of skin, flesh and core were determined. In the finite element simulation was defined for the two parts of the flesh and core of the viscoelastic material model and for the skin part of the elastoplastic material model in ABAQUS software. In the loading section of the simulation, the required parameters were defined dynamically and the results of the pendulum impact test were entered into the software in two methods of force-time and velocity-time in 3 impact levels. The results of the two simulation methods were compared. Damage volume was determined using electron microscope images. The results showed that the maximum allowable force in dynamic loading is equal to 20 N and in the simulation method based on force-time data, the bruise volume was 5.9% different from the results of the experimental test and the amount of software output force was 4.76% different from the pendulum test. In the simulation method based on velocity-time data, the bruise volume is 15.97% and the impact force is 13.63% different from the pendulum test. Therefore, the simulation method based on force-time data provides a better estimate than the simulation based on speed-time data.


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