Photochemical Modification of Starch-Oleic Acid Composite as a Biodegradable Film in Food Packaging

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, 45371-38791, Zanjan, Iran.

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, 45371-38791, Zanjan, Iran


Starch is a bio-based, easy access and low price biopolymer which can be a good option to substitution of the synthetic polymers. But, the high water vapor permeability (WVP) and the low mechanical properties of starch films have limited the application of starch based polymer as a packaging material. The composition of starch with fatty acids, and development of the cross-links by irradiation are good approaches to reduce the hydrophilicity and WVP of starch based polymers. In this study, the starch-oleic acid composites were modified by UV ray and developed by solution casting. Then physical, chemical, and packaging properties of the composites were investigated. Regard to the results, water contact angle was increased and WVP of the specimens was decreased by oleic acid composition. But no change was observed by UV exposer of the starch-oleic acid solution. However, the tensile strength, elasticity and tensile energy to break were reduced by oleic acid emulsion in the matrix of biopolymer. But, the elasticity of the film specimens was increased, simultaneously. It can be concluded, the virgin starch-oleic acid composition was the best modification method to decreasing the sensibility of starch to moisture as a packaging material. 


ASTM, Annual Book of ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials,Philadelphia, 1995, E96–95.
Almasi, H. Ghanbarzadeh, B. and Pezeshki, N. A. (2009). Improving the physical properties of starch and starch–carboxymethyl cellulose composite biodegradable films. Food Science and Technology, 6(22): 1-11 (In Farsi)
Ashton, H. and Fletcher, D. (1962). Development and use of color standards for egg yolks. Poultry Science 41, 1903-1909.
Campos, A. d. Marconcini, J. Martins-Franchetti, S. and Mattoso, L. (2012). The influence of UV-C irradiation on the properties of thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone biocomposite with sisal bleached fibers. Polymer degradation and stability 97, 1948-1955.
Ekrami, M. Emam-Djomeh, Z. Karami moghadam, A.(2016). Effect of fatty acids on physical, mechanical and moisture barrier based edible film–properties of salep. Journal of food Science and Technology.57, 157-167.(In Farsi).
Feng, L. Li, S. Li, Y. Li, H. Zhang, L. Zhai, J. Song, Y. Liu, B. Jiang, L. and Zhu, D. (2002). Super‐hydrophobic surfaces: from natural to artificial. Advanced materials 14, 1857-1860.
Ghanbarzadeh, B. and Almasi, H. Effect of Oleic Acid and Glycerol on the Permeability and Optical Properties of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Based Edible Films. Journal of food industry research.19,25-34
Ghanbarzadeh, B. and Almasi, H. (2009). Investigating of physical properties of carboxymethyl cellulose–oleic acid composite biodegradable edible films. Journal of food Science and Technology.6, 35-42.(In Farsi)
Ghanbarzadeh, B. and Almasi, H. (2011). Physical properties of edible emulsified films based on carboxymethyl cellulose and oleic acid. International journal of biological Macromolecules 48, 44-49.
Ghasemlou, M. Khodaiyan, F. Oromiehie, A. and Yarmand, M. S. (2011). Characterization of edible emulsified films with low affinity to water based on kefiran and oleic acid. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 49, 378-384.
Gontard, N. Duchez, C. CUQ, J. L. and Guilbert, S. (1994). Edible composite films of wheat gluten and lipids: water vapour permeability and other physical properties. International journal of food science & technology 29, 39-50.
Goudarzi, V. Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, I, (2015). Production of starch film by photochemical reactions: Physicochemical characterization. Journal of food industry research.26, 519-530.(In Farsi).
Goudarzi, V. and Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, I. (2018a). Development of photo-modified starch/kefiran/TiO2 bio-nanocomposite as an environmentally-friendly food packaging material. International journal of biological macromolecules 116, 1082-1088.
Goudarzi, V. and Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, I. (2018b). Photo-producible and photo-degradable starch/TiO2 bionanocomposite as a food packaging material: Development and characterization. International journal of biological macromolecules 106, 661-669.
Goudarzi, V. Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, I. and Babaei-Ghazvini, A. (2017). Preparation of ecofriendly UV-protective food packaging material by starch/TiO 2 bio-nanocomposite: Characterization. International journal of biological macromolecules 95, 306-313.
Jamal Abadi, M. and Sarem Nejad, S. (2015). Investigation on the Physicochemical Properties of Ultrasound Treated Wheat Starch. Food Science and Technology 13, 127-136.
Khan, M. A. Bhattacharia, S. Kader, M. and Bahari, K. (2006). Preparation and characterization of ultra violet (UV) radiation cured bio-degradable films of sago starch/PVA blend. Carbohydrate polymers 63, 500-506.
Kovács, V. Gondor, O. K. Szalai, G. Majláth, I. Janda, T. and Pál, M. (2014). UV-B radiation modifies the acclimation processes to drought or cadmium in wheat. Environmental and experimental botany 100, 122-131.
Krumova, M. Lopez, D. Benavente, R. Mijangos, C. and Perena, J. (2000). Effect of crosslinking on the mechanical and thermal properties of poly (vinyl alcohol). Polymer 41, 9265-9272.
Li, X.M. Reinhoudt, D. and Crego-Calama, M. (2007). What do we need for a superhydrophobic surface? A review on the recent progress in the preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces. Chemical Society Reviews 36, 1350-1368.
Li, Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ren, F. Zhao, G. and Leng, X. (2011). Fabrication and characterization of TiO 2/whey protein isolate nanocomposite film. Food Hydrocolloids 25, 1098-1104.
Linthorst, J. (2010). An overview: origins and development of green chemistry. Foundations of chemistry 12, 55-68.
Mohanty, A. Misra, M. and Hinrichsen, G. (2000). Biofibers, biodegradable polymers and biocomposites: an overview. Macromolecular materials and Engineering 276, 1-24.
Ozdemir, M. and Floros, J. D. (2004). Active food packaging technologies. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 44, 185-193.
Park, H. Weller, C. Vergano, P. and Testin, R. (1993). Permeability and mechanical properties of cellulose‐based edible films. Journal of Food Science 58, 1361-1364.
Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, I. Goudarzi, V. and Babaei-Ghazvini, A. (2019). Production of starch based biopolymer by green photochemical reaction at different UV region as a food packaging material: Physicochemical characterization. International journal of biological macromolecules 122, 201-209.
Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, I. Khodaiyan, F. Mousavi, M. and Yousefi, H. (2015). Effect of γ-irradiation on the physical and mechanical properties of kefiran biopolymer film. International journal of biological macromolecules 74, 343-350.
Singh, J. Kaur, L., and McCarthy, O. (2007). Factors influencing the physico-chemical, morphological, thermal and rheological properties of some chemically modified starches for food applications—A review. Food hydrocolloids 21, 1-22.
Sionkowska, A. Skopinska-Wisniewska, J. Planecka, A. and Kozlowska, J. (2010). The influence of UV irradiation on the properties of chitosan films containing keratin. Polymer Degradation and Stability 95, 2486-2491.
Slavutsky, A. M. and Bertuzzi, M. A. (2015). Formulation and characterization of nanolaminated starch based film. LWT-Food Science and Technology 61, 407-413.
Sorrentino, A. Gorrasi, G. and Vittoria, V. (2007). Potential perspectives of bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications. Trends in Food Science & Technology 18, 84-95.
Sreedhar, B. Chattopadhyay, D. Karunakar, M. and Sastry, A. (2006). Thermal and surface characterization of plasticized starch polyvinyl alcohol blends crosslinked with epichlorohydrin. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 101, 25-34.
Vargas, M. Albors, A. Chiralt, A. and González-Martínez, C. (2009). Characterization of chitosan–oleic acid composite films. Food Hydrocolloids 23, 536-547.