مطالعه کارآیی و بهینه‌سازی انرژی مصرفی واحد‌های مرغ گوشتی استان البرز با رویکرد تحلیل پوششی داده‌ها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

بخش تحقیقات ماشین‌های کشاورزی و مکانیزاسیون- موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی- سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی-کرج-ایران

چکیده

با افزایش جمعیت و به تبع آن افزایش تقاضا و بهبود استاندارد سطح زندگی، کاربری انرژی در صنعت مرغداری رو به افزایش است. با توجه به اهمیت انرژی به عنوان نهاده­ مؤثر در مرغداری، مطالعه حاضر با استفاده از روش غیر‌پارامتری­، تحلیل پوششی داده‌ها (DEA) به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل بهره­وری انرژی، شناسایی واحدهای کارآمد از ناکارآمد و همچنین بهینه‌سازی انرژی مصرفی واحدهای تولیدی مرغ گوشتی در استان البرز انجام گرفت. اطلاعات مورد نیاز از 36 واحد مرغداری با تکمیل پرسشنامه و مصاحبه حضوری جمع‌آوری شد. کارآیی فنی، کارآیی فنی خالص، بازده به مقیاس و شاخص صرفه­جویی انرژی نسبت به هدف با استفاده از مدل بازگشت به مقیاس ثابت (CRS) و بازگشت به مقیاس متغیر (VRS)  بر اساس شش نهاده انرژی شامل جوجه، دان مصرفی، سوخت، الکتریسیته، ماشین، نیروی انسانی و 2 ستانده انرژی شامل گوشت مرغ و کود مرغی محاسبه شد. در مدل بازگشت به مقیاس ثابت ، از  36 واحد مرغداری مورد بررسی، 8 مرغداری (22/22 درصد) دارای امتیاز کارا و 28 مرغداری (78/77 درصد) دارای امتیاز ناکارا بوده‌اند. همچنین در مدل بازگشت به مقیاس متغیر ،20 واحد (56/55 درصد) کارا و 16 واحد (44/44 درصد) ناکارا بوده­اند. میانگین کارآیی فنی، کارآیی فنی خالص و کارآیی مقیاس به ترتیب 952/0، 987/0 و 964/0 بدست آمد. بیشترین سهم بهبود مصرف انرژی از کل انرژی قابل صرفه جویی مربوط به سوخت گازوئیل 06/70 درصد و سپس خوراک جوجه و الکتریسیته به ترتیب با  سهم 50/23 و 04/6 درصد می‌باشد. مرغداران در مصرف سوخت بیشترین میزان ناکارآیی و در مصرف جوجه کمترین میزان ناکارآیی را داشته­اند. ناکارآیی مصرف گازوئیل به دلیل همزمانی دوره جوجه­ریزی مورد بررسی با دوره سرما، عدم مدیریت صحیح مصرف، بالاخص در سیستم گرمایشی سالن­ها و استفاده از گازوئیل بعنوان سوخت گرمایشی خانه­های کارگری می‌باشد. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که با بکارگیری توصیه‌هایی در مصرف کارای انرژی، پتانسیل خوبی برای افزایش کارآیی انرژی تولید مرغ گوشتی استان البرز وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Input Energy Saving in Broiler Production, Using Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

نویسنده [English]

  • Adel Vahedi
Department of Agricultural Machinery and Mechanization Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization(AREEO), Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

By increasing population and consequently increasing demand and improving the standard of living, energy use in the poultry industry has risen. The objective of this study was the application of non-parametric method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to analyze the efficiency of broiler producers, discriminate efficient producers from inefficient ones and to identify wasteful uses of energy in order to optimize the energy inputs for broiler production in Alborz province, Iran. Data were collected from 36 broiler producers by using questionnaire and face-to-face interview method. Technical Efficiency, Net Technical Efficiency, Scale Efficiency, and Target Energy Saving Index using Constant Return to Scale (CRS) and Variable Return to Scale (VRS) model based on six energy inputs including chicken, feed, fuel , electricity, machinery, human labor and 2 energy output included broiler and manure. Based on the CRS model, 8 poultry farms (22.22%) and 28 poultry farms (77.78%) of total 36 broiler producers were efficient and inefficient respectively. Also in the VRS model, 20 units (55.56%) were efficient and 16 units (44.44%) were inefficient. The average of TE, NTE and SE were 0.952, 0.987, and 0.964, respectively. The highest share of energy efficiency improvement of total energy saving was related to diesel fuel with 70.06% and then chicken feed and electricity with 23.50% and 6.64% respectively. Broiler producers had the most inefficiency in fuel consumption and had the least inefficiency in chicken use. The inadequacy of diesel consumption due to the coincidence of the incubation period with the cold period, the lack of proper management of consumption, especially in the heating system of salons and the use of diesel as heating fuel for worker houses. The results of this study indicate that there is good potential for increasing energy efficiency of broiler production in Alborz province by following the recommendations for efficient energy use.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • DEA
  • broiler
  • Technical efficiency
  • scale efficiency

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