طراحی، ساخت و ارزیابی سامانه جداکننده الکترواستاتیکی ناخالصی‌های غیردانه‌ای محصولات کشاورزی (مطالعه موردی: جداسازی ذرات کاه از دانه گندم)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه فنی کشاورزی-پردیس ابوریحان- دانشگاه تهران و محقق مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی لرستان

2 2. دانشیار گروه فنی کشاورزی- پردیس ابوریحان -دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

جداسازی بذر و دانه از مهمترین مراحل فرآوری در فرآیند پس از برداشت محصولات کشاورزی است. روش الکترواستاتیکی برای جداسازی ذرات در محصولاتی که به روش معمول قابل جداسازی نیستند؛ کاربردی و قابل توسعه است. در این پروژه یک سامانه جداساز الکترواستاتیکی چرخان با الکترود کرونا و میدان الکتریکی فشار قوی برای جداسازی ذرات دانه و کاه، طراحی و مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. ذرات دانه و کاه ریخته شده بر روی یک نقاله تسمه‌ای از ناحیه کرونا، در زیر الکترود سیمی عبور می‌کرد. هر ذره بر اساس خواص الکتریکی و بار  مشخص ضمن حرکت بر روی استوانه چرخان زمینی، از داخل میدان الکتریکی نیز می‌گذشت. نیروی برآیند ناشی از اختلاف بار الکتریکی ذرات و تفاوت جرم حجمی آن‌ها منجر به اختلاف مسیر حرکت ذرات شده و آن‌ها را در چهار گروه از جعبه‌های متفاوت از هم قرار می‌داد. آزمایش‌ها در چهار سطح ولتاژ و سه سطح سرعت دورانی انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش ولتاژ از 10 تا  25 کیلو‌‌ولت و افزایش سرعت تا rpm70 بیشترین بازیابی و خلوص دانه و کاه در جعبه‌های مشخص تعبیه‌شده در زیر دستگاه را در بر داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Design, Fabrication and Evaluation of Electrostatic Separator System for Separating of Material Other Grain (MOG) in Agriculture Crops (A Case Study of Wheat Straw Separation from Wheat Grain)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Jafari 1
  • Gholamreza chegini 2
1 Ph.D. Student, Agriculture Department of Agrotechnology, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, In Pakdasht, Tehran Province, I.R.Iran & Research, Education and Extension ORG, in Khoramabad, Lorestan province, I.R.Iran
2 Professor, Agrotechnology Department of Agrotechnology, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, In Pakdasht, Tehran Province, I.R.Iran
چکیده [English]

Seed and grain separation is one of the most important steps in the post-harvest process of agriculture crops. The electrostatic method is applicable for the separation of seed from impurities when conventional methods cannot be used. In this study, a rotating electrostatic separating system with a corona electrode using a high-voltage electric field was designed and evaluated to separate grain from straw particles. The wheat and straw particles vent on belt conveyor and passed through the corona zone under the wired electrode. Each particle gained a certain amount of charge based on its electrical properties. The charged particles passed through the electric field generated by the static electrode as they moved along the ground and rotating cylinder. The resultant force due to the difference in the charge of the particles and the difference in their volume mass caused the difference in the direction of movement of the particles and poured them down into four groups of different boxes. Experiments were carried out at four levels of voltage and three levels of rotational speed of cylinder. Results showed that increasing the voltage from 10 to 25 kV and increasing the speed up to 70 rpm achieved the highest recovery and purity of grain and straw in the specified boxes embedded under the machine.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Electric Field
  • Corona Discharge
  • Rotating Cylinder
  • Rotational

Basiry M. & Esehaghbeygi, A. (2012) Cleaning and charging of seeds with an electrostatic separator. Applied engineering in agriculture, 28(1): 143-147.

Bendaoud A., Dascalescu L., Blajan M., Samuila A., Stochita A. & Notingher P. V. (2005) Corona charging of granular layers of insulating particles at the surface of a grounded electrode. Journal of electrostatics, 63(6-10): 643-647.

Bendaoud A., Dordizadeh P., Salama A. R., Messal S. & Dascalescu L. (2017) Experimental study of a modified dual-type high-voltage electrode for electrostatic separation applications. Journal of Electrostatics, 88: 232-235.

Butunoi T., Buda G., Dragos C., Samuila A. & Neamtu V. (2011) Wheat Seeds Separation in High-Intensity Electric Field The 7th International symposium on Advanced Topic In Electrical Engineering ;The Faculty of Electrical Engineering, U.P.B.,Bucharest.

Dascalescu L. (1998) Optimal high-voltage energization of corona-electrostatic separators. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 34(2): 286-293.

Dascalescu L., Dragan C., Bilici M., Beleca R., Hemery Y. & Rouau, X. (2010) Electrostatic basis for separation of wheat bran tissues. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 46(2): 659-665.

Dascalescu L., Morar R., Iuga A., Samuila A., Neamtu V. & Suarasan I. (1994) Charging of particulates in the corona field of roll-type electroseparators. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 27(6): 1242-1251.

Dumitran L. M., Badicu L. V., Plopeanu M. C., & Dascalescu L. (2010) Efficiency of dual wire-cylinder electrodes used in electrostatic separators. Revue Roumain des Sciences Techniques, 55(2): 171-180.

Harmond J. E., Brandenburg N. R. & Klein L. M. (1968) Mechanical seed cleaning and handling. Mechanical seed cleaning and handling, USDA, Washington, D.C.

Harmond J., Brandenburg R. & Klein M. (1968) Mechanical Seed Cleaning and Handling. Agricultural Handbook No: 334. Washington D.C. Agricultural Research Service,

Iuga A., Morar R., Samuila A. & Dascalescu, L. (2001) Electrostatic separation of metals and plastics from granular industrial wastes. IEE Proceedings-Science, Measurement and Technology, 148(2): 47-54.

Kazimirchuk D. A. & Xziretdinov V. X. (1995) Dielectric Equipment for Grading and Cleaning of Seeds. Sugar-beet. 6: 12-13.

Kelly E. G. & Spottiwood, D. J. (1989) The theory of electrostatic separations: A review part II. Particle charging. Minerals Engineering, 2(2): 193-205.

Knoll F. S. & Taylor J. B. (1985) Advances in electrostatic separation. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, 2(2): 106-114.

Kovalyshyn S. & Shvets O.  (2018) Study of Extra Cleaning of Rapeseeds in an Electric Frictional Separator. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis66(3): 677-683.

Li J., Lu H., Guo J., Xu Z. & Zhou Y. (2007) Recycle technology for recovering resources and products from waste printed circuit boards. Environmental science & technology, 41(6): 1995-2000.

Miller, B., M. McDonald, and L. Copeland. 1997. Seed Production: Principles and Practices.
International Thomson Publishing, New York.

Niels J. (2005) Useful static electricity. Mr. Static 4(1): 65‐69. Pozeliene, A., & S. Lynikiene. 1998. Special cleaning of seeds on the cylindrical electro-separator. Agric. Tech. 35(5): 6-9

Pozeliene A. & Lynikiene S. (1998) Special cleaning of Seeds on the Cylindrical Electro-separator. Agricultural Techniques. 35(5): 6-9.

Požėlienė A., Lynikienė S., Šapailaitė I. & Sakalauskas A. (2008) Utilization of strong electric field for special cleaning buckwheat seeds. Agronomy Research, 6(Special issue): 291–298.

Reguig A., Bendaoud A., Dordizadeh P., Salama, A. R., Messal S. & Dascalescu L.  (2017) Experimental study of a modified dual-type high-voltage electrode for electrostatic separation applications. Journal of Electrostatics, 88: 232-235.

Sarmadnia Gh. (1997) Seed Technology, Jahad Daneshgahi Mashhad press.

Silveira A. V. M., Santana M. P., Tanabe E. H. & Bertuol D. A. (2017) Recovery of valuable materials from spent lithium ion batteries using electrostatic separation. International Journal of Mineral Processing169, 91-98.

Silveira A. V. M., Santana M. P., Tanabe E. H., & Bertuol D. A. (2017) Recovery of valuable materials from spent lithium ion batteries using electrostatic separation. International Journal of Mineral Processing169, 91-98.

Strakšas A. (1994) Gathering of buckwheat crop. Lithuanian agricultural advisory service. Academy, 40 pp. (in Lithuanian).Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Toth R. T., Opren A., Saplontai V., Samuila A., Dascalescu L., Gheorghe M. & Cojocaru I. (2014) Electrostatic Separation of Plastic Materials Recycled from End of Life Vehicles Materiale Plastice; 51, No.1.

Younes M., Tilmatine A., Medles K., Rahli M. & Dascalescu, L. (2007) Numerical modeling of conductive particle trajectories in roll-type corona-electrostatic separators. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 43(5), 1130-1136.

Zakareckas R. (1999) Buckwheat. Lithuanian agricultural institute, 29 pp. (in Lithuanian).