عنوان مقاله [English]
In this study, edible films based on gelatin - russian olive flour (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) incorporated with ZnO nanoparticles (2, 4 and 6% w/w) were investigated. The thickness, solubility, water vapor permeability, elongation to breakpoint of films with ZnO were higher than control ones. Color measurement of the edible films indicated that increasing the percent of ZnO nanoparticles, decreased the brightness(L*) and transparency and increased the a* and b* parameters of films (P < 0.05). In general, adding nanoparticles up to 4% increased the antioxidant capacity of the films compared to the control sample. Morphology images of the films showed that with the addition of ZnO the surface of the films was roughercompared to the control sample. Moreover, ZnO nanoparticles decreased the biodegradability of films. In general, films based on gelatin and russian olive flour with 2% ZnO are suitable films with good physical and chemical properties for food packaging.
AOAC, (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
Arfat, Y. A., Benjakul, S., Vongkamjan, K., Sumpavapol, P. & Yarnpakdee, S. (2015). Shelf-life extension of refrigerated sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate/fish skin gelatin-ZnO nanocomposite film incorporated with basil leaf essential oil. Journal of food science and technology, 52(10), 6182-6193.
Arfat, Y. A., Ahmed, J., Hiremath, N., Auras, R., & Joseph, A. (2017). Thermo-mechanical, rheological, structural and antimicrobial properties of bionanocomposite films based on fish skin gelatin and silver-copper nanoparticles. Food Hydrocolloids, 62, 191-202.
ASTM. (1995). Standard Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmissionof Materials. Annual Book of ASTMStandards, Philadelphia, PA, E 96-95, 785–792.
ASTM E, (1996). Standard test methods for water vapor transmission of materials. Foundation drainage rate: Hydraulic Gradient 1:18.
Bahrami, A., Mokarram, R. R., Khiabani, M. S., Ghanbarzadeh, B., & Salehi, R. (2018). Physico-mechanical and antimicrobial properties of tragacanth/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose/beeswax edible films reinforced with silver nanoparticles. International journal of biological macromolecules.
Dias, A. B., Müller, C. M., Larotonda, F. D., & Laurindo, J. B. (2010). Biodegradable films based on rice starch and rice flour. Journal of Cereal Science, 51(2), 213-219.
Han, J. H. & Floros, J. D. (1997). Casting antimicrobial packaging films and measuring their physical properties and antimicrobial activity. Journal of Plastic Film & Sheeting, 13(4), 287-298.
Hosseini, S. F., Rezaei, M., Zandi, M. & Farahmandghavi, F. (2015). Fabrication of bio-nanocomposite films based on fish gelatin reinforced with chitosan nanoparticles. Food Hydrocolloids, 44, 172-182.
Jafarzadeh, S., Alias, A., Ariffin, F., Mahmud, S., Najafi, A. & Sheibani, S. (2017). Characterization of a new biodegradable edible film based on semolina loaded with nano kaolin. International Food Research Journal, 24(1).
Jahed, E., Khaledabad, M. A., Bari, M. R. & Almasi, H. (2017). Effect of cellulose and lignocellulose nanofibers on the properties of Origanum vulgare ssp. gracile essential oil-loaded chitosan films. Reactive and Functional Polymers,117, 70-80.
Jamróz, E., Juszczak, L., &Kucharek, M. (2018). Investigation of the physical properties, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of ternary potato starch-furcellaran-gelatin films incorporated with lavender essential oil. International journal of biological macromolecules, 114, 1094-1101.
Jaramillo, C. M., Gutierrez, T. Goyanes, S., Bernal, C. & Fama, L. (2016). Biodegradability and plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract on cassava starch edible films. Carbohydrate polymers, 151, 150-159.
Kanmani, P. & Rhim, J.-W. (2014a). Physicochemical properties of gelatin/silver nanoparticle antimicrobial composite films. Food Chemistry, 148, 162-169.
Kanmani, P., & Rhim, J.-W. (2014b). Properties and characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with various biopolymers and ZnO nanoparticles. Carbohydrate polymers, 106, 190-199.
Kavoosi, G., Rahmatollahi, A., Dadfar, S. M. M. & Purfard, A. M. (2014). Effects of essential oil on the water binding capacity, physico-mechanical properties, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of gelatin films. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 57(2), 556-561.
Khan, S. U., Khan, A.-u., Shah, A.-u.-H. A., Shah, S. M., Hussain, S., Ayaz, M. & Ayaz, S. (2016). Heavy metals content, phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal evaluation of Elaeagnus angustifolia. Toxicology and industrial health, 32(1), 154-161.
Khazaei, N., Esmaiili, M., Djomeh, Z. E., Ghasemlou, M. & Jouki, M. (2014). Characterization of new biodegradable edible film made from basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) gum. Carbohydrate polymers, 102, 199-206.
Khaki rizi, M., Salehi, E., Mosharaf, L. & Tajali, F. (2012). Pysicochemical properties of Russian Olive fruit for using in food industry. Journal of Herbal Drugs, 3(1),18-20.
Kumar, S., Shukla, A., Baul, P. P., Mitra, A. & Halder, D. (2018). Biodegradable hybrid nanocomposites of chitosan/gelatin and silver nanoparticles for active food packaging applications. Food Packaging and Shelf Life, 16, 178-184.
Liu, Z., Lv, M., Li, F. & Zeng, M. (2016). Development, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Gelatin/Chitosan/ZnO Nanoparticle Composite Films. Journal of aquatic food product technology, 25(7), 1056-1063.
Marvizadeh, M. M., Oladzadabbasabadi, N., Nafchi, A. M. & Jokar, M. (2017). Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite film based on tapioca starch/bovine gelatin/nanorod zinc oxide. International journal of biological macromolecules, 99, 1-7.
Medina Jaramillo, C., González Seligra, P., Goyanes, S., Bernal, C. & Famá, L. (2015). Biofilms based on cassava starch containing extract of yerba mate as antioxidant and plasticizer. Starch‐Stärke, 67(9-10), 780-789.
Nafchi, A. M., Alias, A. K., Mahmud, S.& Robal, M. (2012). Antimicrobial, rheological, and physicochemical properties of sago starch films filled with nanorod-rich zinc oxide. Journal of Food Engineering, 113(4), 511-519.
Nafchi, A. M., Olfat, A., Bagheri, M., Nouri, L., Karim, A. & Ariffin, F. (2017). Preparation and characterization of a novel edible film based on Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum. Journal of food science and technology, 54(6), 1703-1710.
Noshirvani, N., Ghanbarzadeh, B., Mokarram, R. R., & Hashemi, M. (2017). Novel active packaging based on carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan-ZnO NPs nanocomposite for increasing the shelf life of bread. Food Packaging and Shelf Life, 11, 106-114.
Nouraddini, M., Esmaiili, M., & Mohtarami, F. (2018). Development and characterization of edible films based on eggplant flour and corn starch. International journal of biological macromolecules, 120, 1639-1645.
Nourbakhsh, S., Talebian, A., & Faramarzi, S. (2017). Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin/ZnO Nano-Composite Film. Materials Today: Proceedings, 4(7), 7038-7043.
Öztürk, H. İ., Aydın, S., Sözeri, D., Demirci, T., Sert, D. & Akın, N. (2018). Fortification of set-type yoghurts with Elaeagnus angustifolia L. flours: Effects on physicochemical, textural, and microstructural characteristics. LWT-Food Science and Technolology, 90, 620-626.
Piñeros-Hernandez, D., Medina-Jaramillo, C., López-Córdoba, A. & Goyanes, S. (2017). Edible cassava starch films carrying rosemary antioxidant extracts for potential use as active food packaging. Food Hydrocolloids, 63, 488-495.
Pournasir, N., Peighambardoust, S. J. & Peighambardoust, S. H. (2016). Characterization of physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of nanocomposite films based on starch with Ag, ZnO and CuO nanoparticle.Innovative food technologies, 14: 17-32. (In Farsi)
Roy, S., & Rhim, J.-W. (2019a). Agar-based antioxidant composite films incorporated with melanin nanoparticles. Food Hydrocolloids.
Roy, S., & Rhim, J.-W. (2019b). Preparation of carrageenan-based functional nanocomposite films incorporated with melanin nanoparticles. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 176, 317-324.
Sahraee, S., Ghanbarzadeh, B., Milani, J. M. & Hamishehkar, H. (2017). Development of gelatin bionanocomposite films containing chitin and ZnO nanoparticles. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 10(8), 1441-1453.
Salarbashi, D., Shahidi Noghabi, M., Bazaz, B. S., Mortazavi, S.A., Shahabi, I. & Ahmadi, R. (2018). Characterization of physicochemical and microbial films based on soy flour with SiO nanoparticles. Quarterly innovation in food science and technology, 2: 48-54. (In Farsi)
Shankar, S., Teng, X., Li, G. & Rhim, J.-W. (2015). Preparation, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of gelatin/ZnO nanocomposite films. Food Hydrocolloids, 45, 264-271.
Su, J.-F., Yuan, X.-Y., Huang, Z., & Xia, W.-L. (2010). Properties stability and biodegradation behaviors of soy protein isolate/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend films. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 95(7), 1226-1237.
Tao, F., Shi, C. & Cui, Y. (2018). Preparation and physicochemistry properties of smart edible films based on gelatin‐starch nanoparticles. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.
Tapia-Blácido, D., do Amaral Sobral, P., & Menegalli, F. (2011). Optimization of amaranth flour films plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol by multi-response analysis. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 44(8), 1731-1738.
Umamaheswari, G., Sanuja, S., John, V. A., Kanth, S. V., & Umapathy, M. (2015). Preparation, characterization and anti-bacterial activity of zinc oxide-gelatin nanocomposite film for food packaging applications. Polymers and Polymer Composites, 23(3), 199-204.
Voon, H. C., Bhat, R., Easa, A. M., Liong, M. & Karim, A. (2012). Effect of addition of halloysite nanoclay and SiO2 nanoparticles on barrier and mechanical properties of bovine gelatin films. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(5), 1766-1774.
William, R., Daniela, C., Sandriane, P., & Carlos, P. (2015). Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite film from Whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) protein isolate modified with montmorillonite. International Food Research Journal, 22(3)
Zahedi, Y., Fathi-Achachlouei, B., & Yousefi, A. R. (2018) Physical and mechanical properties of hybrid montmorillonite/zinc oxide reinforced carboxymethyl cellulose nanocomposites. International journal of biological macromolecules, 108, 863-873.
Zaree, Z.,Noori, L. & Fahim Danesh, M. (2016). Study of replacement of wheat flour by Russian olive flour on physicochemical and sensory properties of cakes. Quarterly Innovation in Food Science and Technology. 2: 56-63. (In Farsi)