مدل‌سازی و بهینه‌سازی انرژی مصرفی ویژه و انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای طی خشک‌کردن توت سیاه ارگانیک با پیش تیمارهای مختلف به روش سطح پاسخ

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی فناوری کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مغان، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل

2 گروه مهندسی بیوسیستم، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل

چکیده

بیشترین سهم گازهای گلخانه‌ای در جهان مربوط به مصرف سوخت‌های فسیلی در نیروگاه‌ها به‌منظور تولید برق می‌باشد. تولید و انتشار گازهای گلخانه­ای برای فرایند خشک­کردن که دارای مصرف انرژی بالایی است، اهمیت بیشتری دارد. در این تحقیق، مدل‌سازی و بهینه­سازی مقادیر انرژی مصرفی ویژه و انتشار گازهای گلخانه­ای شامل CO2 و NOX طی فرایند خشک­کردن توت سیاه تحت خشک‌کن ترکیبی هوای گرم – مادون‌قرمز (در سه سطح دمای هوای ورودی 50، 60 و °C 70) با پیش تیمارهای مختلف شامل مایکروویو (90، 180 و w 360)، بلانچینگ (70، 80 و C°90) و فراصوت (15، 30 وmin  45) توسط روش سطح پاسخ مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. انرژی خشک‌کن از توربین‌های مختلف بخار، توربین گاز و نیروگاه­های ترکیبی با سوخت‌های گاز طبیعی، نفت سنگین و نفت گاز تأمین می‌گردد. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش توان مایکروویو و زمان فراصوت مقدار انرژی مصرفی ویژه طی معادله درجه دوم از 55/185تا kWh/kg53/55، کاهش یافت. همچنین این مقدار با افزایش دمای بلانچینگ طی معادله خطی روند کاهشی (از 08/208 تا kWh/kg56/88) داشت. مقدار انتشار تمامی گازهای گلخانه­ای با افزایش توان مایکروویو، زمان فراصوت و دمای هوای گرم برای تمامی توربین‌ها با سوخت‌های مختلف طی معادله درجه دوم روند کاهشی (از 67/194460 تا g 98/24987 برای CO2 و از 36/1074 تا g 06/106 برای NOx) نشان داد. درحالی‌که این مقادیر با افزایش دمای بلانچینگ، به‌طور خطی، کاهش (از 85/218063 تا g 54/39985 برای CO2 و از 76/1204 تا g 72/169 برای NOx) یافت. بر اساس مدل‌سازی به روش سطح پاسخ، شرایط بهینه‌ جهت کمترین انرژی مصرفی ویژه، در توان مایکروویو W 7/349 و دمای هوای ورودی oC 80/69 برای پیش تیمار مایکروویو، زمان فراصوت min 45 و دمای هوای ورودی oC 70 برای پیش تیمار فراصوت، دمای بلانچینگ oC 90 و دمای هوای ورودی oC 70 برای پیش­تیمار بلانچینگ با میانگین مطلوبیت 8/99% تعیین گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modeling and Optimization of Specific Energy Consumption and Green House Gas Emissions During Drying of Organic Blackberry with Different Pretreatments by Response Surface Methodology

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Taghinezhad 1
  • Mohammad Kaveh 2
1 Moghan College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

The largest share of greenhouse gases in the world is related to the use of fossil fuels in power plants for electricity generate. Production and emissions of greenhouse gas are more important for the drying process that has high specific energy consumption (SEC). In this study, modeling and optimization of SEC and greenhouse gas emissions including CO2 and NOx during the process of blackberry drying under infrared-hot air combined dryer (at three inlet air temperature levels 50, 60 and 70 ° C) with different pretreatments including of microwave (90, 180 and 360 w), blanching (70, 80 and 90 ° C) and ultrasond (15, 30 and 45 min) were evaluated by response surface methodology. The drying energy was provided by various steam turbines, gas turbines and combined plants using natural gas, heavy oil and gas oil as fuel. The results showed that by increasing the microwave power and ultrosond time decreased quadraticly the amount of SEC (from 185.55 to 55.53 kWh/kg). However, this value decreased linearly (from 208.08 to 88.56 kWh/kg) with increasing blanching temperature. Emissions amount for all greenhouse gas decreased quadraticly (from 194460.67 to 24987.97g for CO2 and from 1074.36 to 106.06 g for NOx) with increasing microwave power, ultrosound time and hot air tepmerature for all turbines with different fuels. However, this amount decreased linearly with increasing blanching temperature (from 218063.85 to 39985.54g for CO2 and from 1204.76 to 169.72 g for NOx). Based on modeling using RSM, optimum conditions for the minimum SEC were determined to be microwave power of 349.7 W and inlet air temperature of 69.8 oC for microwave pretreatment, ultrasound time of 45 min and inlet air temperature of 70 oC for ultrasound pretreatment, blanching temperature of 90 oC and inlet air temperature of 70 oC for blanching pretreatment with disierability mean of 99.8%.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Combined dryer
  • Response surface
  • Green House Gas
  • modelling
  • Blackberry fruit
Abbasi Suraki, A., Sharifzade, F., Tavakkol Afshari, R., Majnoun Hosseini, N. and Gazor, H.R. (2010). Optimization of processing parameters of soybean seeds dried in a constant-bed dryer using Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 12: 409-423
Adabi, M.E., Motevali, A., Nikbakht, A.M., Khoshtaghaza, M.H. (2013). Investigation of some pretreatments on energy and specific energy consumption drying of black mulberry. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 19(1): 89-105.
Afolabi, T.J., Tunde-Akintunde, T.Y., Adeyanju, J.A. (2015). Mathematical modeling of drying kinetics of untreated and pretreated cocoyam slices. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52 (5): 2731 –2740.
Agarry, S.E. (2016). Modelling the Thin-Layer Drying Kinetics of Untreated and Blanch-Osmotic Pre-treated Tomato Slices. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 4(10): 850-858.
Akonor, P.T., Tortoe, C. (2014). Effect of blanching and osmotic pretreatment on drying kinetics, shrinkage and rehydration of chayote (sechium edule) during convective drying. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 4(8): 1215-1229.
Amami, E., Khezami, W., Mezrigui, S., Badwaik, L.S., Bejar, A.K., Perez, C.T., Kechaou, N. (2017). Effect of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration pretreatment on the convective drying of strawberry, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 36: 286-300.
Baeghbali, V., Niakousari M., Ngadi MO, Eskandari M.H. (2018) Combined ultrasound and infrared assisted conductive hydro-drying of apple slices. Drying Technology. DOI: 10.1080/07373937.2018.1539745. (In Press).
Behera, G., Sutar, P.P. (2018). Effect of convective, infrared and microwave heating on drying
rates, mass transfer characteristics, milling quality and microstructure of steam gelatinized Paddy. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 41(8); e12900.
Chayjan, R.A., Kaveh, M., Dibagar, N., Nejad, M.Z. (2107). Optimization of pistachio nut drying in
a fluidized bed dryer withmicrowave pretreatment applying response surface methodology. Chemical Product and Process Modeling. 12(3): DOI: 10.1515/cppm-2016-0048
Chen, X, Du, W., Liu. D. (2008). Response surface optimization of biocatalytic biodiesel production with acid oil. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 40: 423-429.
El-Mesery, H.S., Mwithiga, G. (2015). Performance of a convective, infrared and combined infrared- convective heated conveyor-belt dryer. Journal of Food Science and Technology ,52(5): 2721–2730.
Ferrari, C.C., Germer, S.P.M., Aguirre, J.M. (2012). Effects of spray-drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of blackberry powder. Drying Technology, 30: 154–163.
Iran Energy Balance-Sheet., 2013. Available from: URL: http://pep.moe.gov.ir/
Jin, W., Mujumdar, A.S., Zhang, M., Shi, W. (2018). Novel drying techniques for spices and herbs: a Review. Food Engineering Reviews 10(1): 34–45
Kantrong, H., Tansakul, A., Mittal, G.S. (2014) Drying characteristics and quality of shiitake
mushroom undergoing microwave-vacuum drying and microwave-vacuum combined with infrared drying. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(12): 3594-608.
Kaveh, M., Jahanbakhshi, A., Abbaspour-Gilandeh, Y., Taghinezhad, E., Moghimi, M.B.F.  (2018). The effect of ultrasound pre-treatment on quality, drying, and thermodynamic attributes of almond kernel under convective dryer using ANNs and ANFIS network. Journal of Food Process Engineering.  41(7): e12868.
Khana, T. (1990). Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Rostamkhani Publication, Tehran, Iran.
Kumar, D., Prasad, S., Murthy, G.S. (2012). Optimization of microwave-assisted hot air drying conditions of okra using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(2): 221-32
Liu, Y., Sun, C., Lei, Y., Yu, H., Xi, H., Duan. X. (2019). Contact ultrasound strengthened far-infrared radiation drying on pear slices: Effects on drying characteristics, microstructure, and quality attributes. Drying Technology, 37(6): 745-758.
Majdi, H., Esfahani, J. A., Mohebbi, M (2019). Optimization of convective drying by response surface methodology. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 156: 574–584
Manan, Z.A., Nawi, W.N.R.M., Alwi, S.R.W., Kleme, J.J. (2017). Advances in Process Integration research for CO2 emission reduction e A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 167: 1-13.
Motevali, A., Minaei, S., Banakar, A., Ghobadian, B., Khoshtaghaza, M. H. (2014). Comparison of energy parameters in various dryers. Energy Conversion and Management. 87: 711-725.
Motevali, A.,  Taghinezhd, E, Hashemi, S.J. (2018a) Investigation of energy parameters, environment and social costs for drying process. Agriculture Mechanization and System Research,  DOI: 10.22092/ERAMS.2018.109656.1180 (In Farsi)
Motevali, A.,  Hashemi, S. J. (2018). Investigating the drying parameters of Fijou fruit in a freeze dryer. Journal of Research and Innovation in Food Science and Technology. 5 (4): 699-713 (In Farsi).
Motevali, A., Tabatabaei, S.R. (2017). A comparison between pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from operation of different dryers based on energy consumption of power plants. Journal of Cleaner Production. 154: 455-461.
Motevali, A., Hedayati, F. (2018). Investigation of change Drying Rate Constant coefficient in simulations models with various pretreatments on drying apple. Journal of Research and Innovation in Food Science and Technology, 4(3): 39-51.
Nazari, S., Shahhoseini, O., Sohrabi-Kashani, A., Davari, S., Paydar, R., Delavar-Moghadam, Z., 2010. Experimental determination and analysis of CO2, SO2 and NOx emission factors in Iran’s thermal power plants. Energy, 35: 2992-2998.
Noshad, M., Mohebbi, M., Shahidi, F., Mortazavi, S.A. (2013). Multi-objective optimization of osmotic–ultrasonic pretreatments and hot-air drying of quince using response surface methodology. Food Bioprocess and Technology, 5: 2098–2110.
Nozad, M., Khojastehpour, M., Tabasizadeh, M., Azizi, M., Ashtiani, S-H.M., Salarikia, A. (2016). Characterization of hot-air drying and infrared drying of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) leaves. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 10(3): 466-473.
Pandey, O.P., Mishra, BK., Misra, A. (2018). Comparative study of green peas using with blanching & without blanching techniques. Information Processing in Agriculture. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.inpa.2018.10.002
Romero, C.A. J., Byron, D., Yépez. V. (2015). Ultrasound as pretreatment to convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth). Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 22: 205–210.
Sahin, M., Doymaz, I. (2017). Estimation of cauliflower mass transfer parameters during convective drying. Heat and Mass Transfer, 53(2): 507-517.
Salarikia, A., Ashtiani, S.H.M., Golzarian, M.R. (2017). Comparison of drying characteristics
and quality of peppermint leaves using different drying methods. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 41(3): e12930.
Saxena A., Maity, T., Raju, P.S., Bawa, A.S. (2015). Optimization of pretreatment and evaluation of quality of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) bulb crisps developed using combination drying. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 95: 106-117
Shi, Q., Zheng, Y., Zhao, Y.  (2014). Optimization of combined heat pump and microwave drying of yacon (smallanthus sonchifolius) using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 38: 2090–2098
Silva, E.S.D., Brandão, S.C.R., Silva, A.L.D., Silva, J.H.F.D., Coêlho, A.C.D., Azoubel, P.M. (2019). Ultrasound-assisted vacuum drying of nectarine. Journal of Food Engineering, 246: 119-124.
Sledz, M., Wiktor, A., Rybak, K., Nowacka, M., Witrowa-Rajchert, D. (2016). The impact of ultrasound and steam blanching pre-treatments on the drying kinetics, energy consumption and selected properties of parsley leaves. Applied Acoustics,103: 148-156.
Tavanir Company. Statistical reports of electric power industry in Iran for 1968- 2008. Tehran: Information and Statistical Department. See also http:// www.Tavanir.org.ir/latin/ Iran’spowerIndustryannualreports/statisticalpublications.
Torki-Harchegani, M., Ghanbarian, D., Pirbalouti, A.G., Sadeghi, M. (2016). Dehydration behaviour, mathematical modelling, energy efficiency and essential oil yield of peppermint leaves undergoing microwave and hot air treatments. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 58: 407–418.
Wang, G., Deng, Y., Xu, X., He, X., Zhao, Y., Zou, Y., Liu, Z., Yue, J. (2016). Optimization of air jet impingement drying of okara using response surface methodology. Food Control, 59: 743-749.
Yang, Z.H., Huang, J., Zeng, G.M., Ruan, M., Zhou, C.S., Li, L., Rong, Z.G. (2009). Optimization of flocculation conditions for kaolin suspension using the composite flocculant of MBFGA1 and PAC by response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology, 100: 4233-4239.